Buddhist Deity: Ratnasambhava (Buddha)

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Ratnasambhava, Buddha (Tibetan: rin chen jung den, sang gye): a principal buddha within Vajrayana Buddhism representing the qualities of enlightenment and residing in the southern quarter of a mandala.

There are two main types of Ratnasambhava:
- Buddha Appearance Ratnasambhava
- Peaceful Appearance Ratnasambhava

Ratnasambhava is primarily associated with Vajrayana Buddhism and originates in the Tantric Literature of the Yoga and Anuttarayoga Tantra classes. He is most commonly depicted in the set of the Five Symbolic Buddhas.

"Arising in the southern direction is Ratnasambhava on a horse, lotus and sun throne; with a body yellow in colour the right hand is placed in the mudra of supreme generosity." (Dragpa Gyaltsen, 1147-1216).

"In the middle of a ground of lapis lazuli is a jewelled throne - bestowing numerous attainments. On top is a thousand petalled lotus - unstained by worldly faults. Wisdom and means appear as a sun and moon. Above this, as the essence of all qualities is Ratnasambhava. With a radiant body having the colour of blazing gold, one face, two hands, the right is in supreme generosity -- fulfilling the wishes of beings. Performing meditative stabilization, the left is in the mudra of meditation. Seated with the two feet in vajra posture - method and wisdom, and having the thirty-two marks and eighty examples of excellence. For the purpose of satisfying - well adorned with jewels and beautiful silk garments. Adorning the body are a million light rays issuing and returning; having a voice possessing sixty separate tones and a mind continuum of immeasurable pristine awareness." (Bhikshu Konchog Ozer, 15th century).

Unique Iconography:
- Buddha or Peaceful (Bodhisattva) Appearance
- Yellow colour (some variations are found)
- Right hand extended in the gesture of generosity
- Horse supported throne

Types & Forms:
- Ratnasambhava (Buddha Appearance: without ornaments, Nirmanakaya)
- Ratnasambhava (Peaceful Appearance: with ornaments, Sambhogakaya)
- Ratnasambhava (together with the Five Tantric/symbolic Buddhas)
- Ratnasambhava (Tattvasamgraha Tantra)
- Ratnasambhava (Sarvadurgati Parishodhana Tantra)
- Ratnasambhava (with consort)
- Ratnasambhava in a Pureland
- Others...

Five Buddhas: Charya & Yoga Tantras:
1. Vairochana | 2. Amitabha | 3. Akshobhya | 4. Ratnasambhava | 5. Amoghasiddhi

Jeff Watt 9-2005 [updated 8-2013]