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Buddhist Deity: Avalokiteshvara ('Mar Tri ' Description & Bibliography)

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There are many different sacred Buddhist traditions that depict the various forms of Avalokiteshvara. Most of these traditions only have an initiation ritual and at best a very short daily ritual practice. Preserved in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition there are seven principal traditions that contain extensive teachings on the practice of Avalokiteshvara.

[1] King's Tradition (gyal lug, nam kha gyl po) of Tri Songtsen Gampo,
[2] Bhikshuni Shri Tradition (gelongma palmo lug) of the Kashmiri nun, Gelongma Palmo [top right corner],
[3] Kyergangpa Tradition (gyergang lug) of the Shangpa Kagyu School,
[4] Tsembupa Tradition (tsembupa lug) of the Sakya & Jonang Traditions,
[5] Dagyal Tradition (dagyal lug) of the Nyingma Treasure (terma) tradition,
[6] Maitri Yogin
[7] Karma Chagme Tradition (karma chagme lug) joining the philosophical systems of mahamudra and dzogchen with compassion.


- “The Tibetan Avalokitesvara Cult in the Tenth Century: Evidence from the Dunhuang Manuscripts,” in Tibetan Buddhist Literature and Praxis (Proceedings of the Tenth Seminar of the IATS, 2003, Volume 4), ed. Ronald M. Davidson and Christian Wedemeyer (Leiden: Brill, 2006): 55-72.

- Remarks on the Mani bKa'-'bum and the Cult of Avalokiteshvara in Tibet by Matthew Kapstein, pages 79-93.Tibetan Buddhism, Reason and Revelation edited by Steven D. Goodman and Ronald M. Davidson. SUNY, 1992. #5.

- The Thousand-armed Avalokiteshvara by Lokesh Chandra. Abhinav Publications, 1988.
ISBN 81-7017-247-0.

"The Origin of Avalokitesvara" (PDF). Lokesh Chandra. Indologica Taurinenaia (International Association of Sanskrit Studies). XIII (1985-1986): 189–190.

- The Clear Mirror: A traditional account of Tibet's Golden Age. Sakyapa Sonam Gyaltsen (1996). Snow Lion Publications. pp. 64–65.

- The Blue Annals by George N. Roerich. Motilal Banarsidass, 1976. (First edition 1949). Page 1043.

Jeff Watt 2-2007