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Blue Annals: Part 15 (Monastic Systems, Colophon)

Blue Annals Contents | Blue Annals Outline

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages 634-645) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of THDL.Lukhang, Lhasa

PART 15 (BA): Monastic Systems, Questions and Answers, Printing [6 CHAPTERS]
{14 folios; 1 folio. Chandra 943?970; Chengdu 1237-1274; Roerich 1062-1093.}

15.1 The Kashmirian Scholar [Śākyaśrī] and the ordination lineages of the four institutions descending from him (kha che pa chen dang / de las brgyud pa?i sde bzhi?i mkhan brgyud kyi skabs. Chandra 944; Chengdu 1237; Roerich 1062).
{1062} The origin of religious schools, such as the four tshogs sde, and others. Queries and replies. The story of the printing of this edition.

I have already given in brief the story of the origin of the Holy Doctrine in the "Abode of Snows" (Tibet). Now (the story) of the monastic community, which practiced this Doctrine: all the Vinayadharas of Tibet belong to the school of the Sarvāstivādins. Among them (one finds) the so-called "Lower" Lineage of the mahā-upādhyāya Śantarakṣita, handed down by the great bla chen po (dgongs pa rab gsal), the so-called "Upper" Lineage of the East Indian paṇḍita Dharmapāla, who had ordained the three Pālas and others in mnga' ris, and the Lineage handed down by the Kashmirian paṇḍita Śakyaśrī (bhadra).
Of these three Lineages, the first two have already been mentioned by me. Now I shall ascertain the year in which the great Kashmirian paṇḍita Śakyaśrībhadra, who was destined to become the future Third Buddha Pradyota (rab gsal), was born and the year in which he came to Tibet, as well as the manner of his labours for the welfare of living beings.
Now the great paṇḍita himself had established the Buddhist Chronology at sol nag than po che in the year Fire Female Hare (me mo yos 1207 A.D.), in which he said: ''In the first half of the Kārttika month, exactly at midnight of the 8th day, when the Moon had set behind the mountains, Munīndra passed into Nirvāṇa. Since then, a thousand seven hundred and fifty years, two and half months and five days have passed:" After dividing these years by sixty, a remainder of ten years is left over. Hence the first (year) of the Buddhist Chronology (as calculated by the mahā-paṇḍta) {R 1063} must have been the Fire Female Serpent year (me mo sbrul 1197 A.D.).
(One should remember that this calculation was made) three cycles of sixty years after the year Fire Female Hare (me mo yos 1027 A.D.), which is the first of the period of "current" ('das lo) years of the Kālacakra scholars. This means that 180 years had elapsed (since the year 1027 A.D.). From the Fire Hare year (me yos 1207 A. D.), which had been calculated (by the mahā-paṇḍita ) at thang, to the present Fire Male Ape year (me pho spre 1476 A.D.) four cycles of sixty years and 30 years have elapsed. Thus (this Fire Ape year) is the 2020th year after the Nirvāṇa of the Muni.
Such being the Chronology of the Doctrine, the birth-year of the mahā-paṇḍita must be the year Fire FemaleSheep (me mo lug 1127 A.D.). For in a stotra composed by the khro phu lo tsa ba (in honour of the kha che pang chen), it is said:
"A thousand six hundred and ninety-two years after the Nirvāṇa of the (Buddha),
the Saint was born as chief of the yellow-garbed monks, who are the life of the Doctrine of Śākya.
Salutation to his feet !" Now, after dividing 1692 by sixty, a remainder of 12 (years) is left over. The 12th year (i.e. the 1692nd year) is an Earth Male Dragon year (sa pho 'brug 1148 A.D.). The word "after" (in the text of the above stotra) means the next year, an Earth Female Serpent year (sa mo sbrul 1149 A.D.), which is the 23rd year of the mahā-paṇḍita (during which he received his pravrajyā ordination). The above being very clear, the mahā-paṇḍita 's 25th year was without doubt an Iron FemaleSheep year (lcags mo lug 1151 A.D.).
In this connection it is found stated in the works by spyi bo lhas pa and others that the mahā-paṇḍita had come to Tibet in his 65th year. However this is a mistake. For the lo tsa ba (khro phu) has stated that, the year of the mahā-paṇḍita 's coming to {R 1064} Tibet was the Wood Male Mouse year (shing pho byi ba 1204 A.D.). This Wood Male Mouse year was the 78th year of the mahā-paṇḍita. He spent ten years (in Tibet), till the year Water Female Hen (chu mo bya 1213 A.D.). He left Tibet in the year Wood Male Dog (shing pho khyi 1214 A.D.). In the year Wood Female Hen (shing mo bya 1225 A.D.) of the next Cycle of Sixty Years (lo skor) he reached the age of 99. He passed into Nirvāṇa on Saturday, the 5th day of the sgrog zla (Śatabhiṣā, Aquarī).
The same was stated as follows: "Aged a hundred years, less one, in the year of the Hen (bya to 1225 A.D.), in the month of sgrog (Śatabhiṣā), in its first half, on Saturday, the fifth day, the Sun of living beings manifested (his) setting". This Saturday could be clearly calculated with the help of the astrological tables called "1nga bsdus" composed by the mahā-paṇḍita himself. In short, the mahā-paṇḍita was born in the year Fire Female Sheep (me mo lug 1127 A.D.). He was ordained in the year Earth Female Serpent (sa mo sbrul 1149 A.D.). He came to Tibet at the age of 78 in the year Wood Male Mouse (shing pho byi ba 1204 A.D.). He spent ten years in Tibet, till the year Water Female Hen (chu mo bya 1213 A.D.). He left Tibet in the year Wood Male Dog (shing pho khyi 1214 A.D.), and laboured extensively for the welfare of living beings in Kāśmīra. He passed into Nirvāṇa at the age of 99, in the year Wood Female Hen (shing mo bya 1125 A.D.).
The story of his invitation to Tibet and that of his labours for the welfare of living beings: The holy man named khro phu lo tsa ba (byams pa'i dpal) proceeded towards Nepal and India in order to study the work of a translator, and stopped at skyi rong. One day he offered one and half silver srang to one named don zhags pa chen po, a disciple of rin po che rgyal tsha, and requested him to examine the omens of the following three,(possibilities): "If I go to India and Nepal, would accidents befall me? Shall I be able to benefit living beings? Will the good work which I intend doing, be successful?" {R 1065} don zhags pa said: "I couldn't tell whether the three will be successful. I shall examine (the omens) addressing myself to Amoghapaśa".
Then the lo tsa ba himself having arranged a large offering, examined the dreams. At dawn he saw in his dream an a tsa ra with teeth similar to a conch. He inquired: "Who was it?" In reply he heard: "Look at the writing on the back?" He saw the letters dvi-bhā-śī. Again the a tsa ra gave him a leaf of the Bodhi tree on which he found an image of a paṇḍita with a bird-like face. On the back he read: ?Mahāmaitrī?. Again the a tsa ra handed him a mirror in which he saw a paṇḍita who was similar to a god and an inscription which read: "Man͂͂juśri". Then (he saw) the image of a white man, made from the outside of rough woollen cloth, and from the inside of silk, inscribed ?Maṇipadme?. These four objects influenced his mind greatly, and he thought of keeping them in a temple. He took them there but the a tsa ra exclaimed: "Give them back! I shall reverse the order", and added: "Let the lion made of conch run towards all directions! You may leave the leaf and mirror, but take the image of the man made of silk. After you may take the mirror. After that you may take the leaf also." On awakening, he could not understand the dream, though he felt that it was auspicious.
At that time he did not understand the meaning of the four inscriptions. But later he found out that the lion made of a conch indicated the lo tsa ba himself, the white man - the Lord Mitra, the paṇḍita seen in the mirror - Buddhaśrī, the paṇḍita drawn on the leaf - the Kashmirian paṇḍita.
(Following these indications) the lo tsa ba at first proceeded to Nepal and the border-country of India. Afterwards he invited the Lord Mitra to Tibet. After that the mahā-paṇḍita Buddhaśrī was invited. On the 7th day of the month of mchu (the Sixth month) of the year Wood Male Mouse (shing pho byi ba 1204 A.D.) of the Chinese chronology the lo tsa ba proceeded to invite (the mahā-paṇḍita). He met a kalyāṇa-mitra named rgya who had been a direct disciple of the bla ma zhang, {R 1066} residing at rgyang ro gun chung. Though the latter was staying in seclusion, on hearing about the lo tsa ba's coming, he suddenly broke his retirement and went out to receive him. From him the lo tsa ba obtained the Cycles of the Doctrine of zhang.
zhang said: "To invite the mahā-paṇḍita it won't do to act humbly and irresolutely! Behave in a noisy manner! The Sun may rise from the West, but you will surely succeed in your purpose." (Journeying) by stages, he (khro phu lo tsa ba) reached gro mo. The natives of gro mo showed reverence to him and his provisions increased in quantity. Though he intended going to the Indian market place of be dur, he lost the road and wandered about in the forests, which were full of brigands, poisonous snakes, wild beasts, and spirits (mi ma yin).
Without being harmed by them, he reached the market-place of be dur, and sent two Indians, the junior paṇḍita Jayaśrī and Vārāṇasī pa, accompanied by two Tibetans - jo sras nyi ma and khams pa byang grags, as messengers to convey the invitation to the mahā-paṇḍita at Jagattara of the East. With them he sent the following letter written in Sanskrit:
"Salutation to the Buddha Amoghasiddha! To the one who has been born as son of Sakya, in the Doctrine of Śākya, bearing the name of Śākya, the crown of the heads of those who have mastered the five (sciences) and firmly observe the immaculate vows of morality, etc." As presents to accompany the letter he sent a Prajn͂͂āpāramitāhṛdaya written in gold, five golden srangs, a pair of silk garments and a canopy (bla re) made of good quality silk of 'iu.
When the messengers reached a place called la drug, after a journey of 34 days, the mahā-paṇḍita and his retinue, having been forewarned of the Tibetan invitation, came there in advance. Having failed to find the messengers, they were preparing to return, and were packing their luggage, when the Tibetan messengers arrived and presented to the mahā-paṇḍita the letter and thee presents. The mahā-paṇḍita said: "When having had a premonition {R 1067} after that an invitation was due to arrive from Tibet, I came here well in advance of time, we found that the messengers had not arrived and were preparing to return. Didn't I tell you to stay on for a while, for the invitation was surely to come? Now you must advise us what to do," said the mahā-paṇḍita addressing himself to the Junior paṇḍitas.
The Junior paṇḍitas replied: ?The Dharmasvamin should himself decide the matter! How are we to understand it with our minds?" The mahā-paṇḍita then said: "I have one to whom I can put a question." He then stayed in seclusion for five days, and asked the Venerable One.
Then numerous great sthaviras of Eastern India came to beg the mahā-paṇḍita not to proceed to Tibet. They brought with them the images of the Great Merciful One and the Tārā consecrated by the acārya Nāgārjuna as solicitors (ngo chen). (The Tibetans) bribed the Kashmirian who was in charge of the images, and he pulled out the box of the chariot's wheel and made the images face backwards (in order to create the semblance of a bad omen), and thus helped the Tibetans.
The lo tsa ba (khro phu) having come from be dar met the Dharmasvāmin at Vaneśvara. The Dharmasvāmin said: "I thought the lo tsa ba knew many doctrines, and was an elderly man endowed with the ability of erecting large images, but he is young. Most probably he will be unable to act as a translator. After I had bestowed on him the cittotpāda rite and several sādhanas, are we, Teacher and disciples, to return?" The paṇḍita Jayaśri told (the lo tsa ba): "The Teacher and (his) disciples despise you, because of your age. You should take measures, and put questions on the Doctrine." At the request of Jayaśri, the mahā-paṇḍita permitted the lo tsa ba to ask questions on the Doctrine. Then the lo tsa ba put two questions to each of the nine Junior paṇḍitas (of the mahipaṇḍita's retinue), and they discussed them throughout the evening till midnight. The Dharmasvāmin was pleased, though it interrupted his usual meditation, and said: "It {R 1068} is wonderful that in Tibet there should exist such, speakers on religious subjects!" Then a border king closed the road, and as the Junior paṇḍitas also required litters, this caused great hardships.
On arrival at phag ri, countless Tibetan monks and laymen gathered there from the four quarters, and attended on the mahā-paṇḍita in every possible way, begged for religious instructions, and the mahā-paṇḍita preached to them numerous kinds of precepts. From rgyang ro as far as mgur mo his religious preaching spread and his wealth increased immeasurably. From tshon 'dus as far as chu mig numerous monks gathered round the mahā-paṇḍita, so that laymen had difficulties in seeing his face. The inmates of khro phu arrived in great state at chu mig to receive them.
After they had reached khro phu, many thousands of learned monks gathered there. The mahā-paṇḍita spent his summer retreat there. There were more than 8oo voters (tshul 'shing len pa). In connection with it, the mahā-paṇḍita preached the Aṣṭasāhasrikā-Prajn͂͂apāramitā, as well as the Priātimokṣa and the Sūtrālaṃkāra.
After that the mahā-paṇḍita proceeded to klas mo che of snar (thang). There he preached the Commentary on the Pan͂͂caviṃśatisāhasrikā. When he reached the chapter of the Tathatā-pariccheda, his book of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā-Prajn͂͂apāramitā was taken away by the Tārā who made many offerings to it and proceeded towards the East. The mahā-paṇḍita said: "This indicates that I am to go towards dbus." (It was said that when the mahā-paṇḍita was reciting the text, a crow, a manifestation of Tārā, snatched away some of the pages of the palm-leaf manuscript, and took them away towards the East. These leaves, believed to have been brought by the crow, were discovered at spo khang, and are now preserved in the monastery of spo khang). When he had come to the last chapter of the Prajn͂͂apāramitā, he saw a goddess, worshipping this book which was placed inside the maṅḍala of the offerings, and then the goddess proceeded {R 1069} towards the West. The mahā-paṇḍita said: "This indicated that in my old age I was to go to Kāśmīra.?
After that the mahā-paṇḍita spent his summer retreat at klas mo che of snar, and spent some time there. After performing the ceremony of the end of the rainy season, many sthaviras invited him to chu mig ring mo. There he preached the Mādhyamaka-ratna-mālā and the dpe'I rgyan. After that he was invited by the inmates of srin po ri, and then proceeded to 'tshur phu and lha sa via Upper gzhu snye. The mahā-paṇḍita made large offerings to the two images of the Lords (of lha sa). Then the mahā-paṇḍita reached srin po ri escorted by numerous horsemen of 'tshur phu. The mahā-paṇḍita said to the escort: "At the time of my visit to your monastery, I discovered there were three images of divinities which were mentioned in the Tantra of sangs rgyas thod pa. Your former Teachers knew them, but had no faith. If I were to introduce you to these gods, and preach to you their precepts, numerous yogins would later appear (among you)."
These three gods were: Saṃvara and (his) Śakti in the yuganaddha posture, Śakyamuni in the aspect of Nirmāṇa-kāya with his Śakti Vajra-Dākinī, and Vajra with the bell as his Śakti (rdo rje dril bu mnyam sbyor). He spent the summer retreat, at srin po ri, and translated the commentary on the Abhidharmasamuccaya by the acārya Jn͂͂ānamitra.
As general doctrine, he preached the Ārya-Aśokadattavyākaraṇa-nāma, the dpe brgya pa, the las kyi 'khor lo bstan pa, {R 1070} as well as the Analysis of the Five Treatises of Maitreya and the Six Treatises of the Mādhyamaka (dbu ma rigs tshogs). The exposition of the Five Treatises of Maitreya was bestowed by him at the request of the Abbot of srin po ri. gnyal zings po che pa and others practiced the rgyal sras lam rim.
The mahā-paṇḍita was then invited to bsam yas by lha zhi ba 'od. He journeyed to bsam yas and 'chims phu. There he met dbon ston rin chen sgang pa. When the mahā-paṇḍita came to srin po ri, he received an invitation from the inmates of 'tshur phu, rgya ma and 'bri khung. Twice he failed to meet 'bri khung pa. On two occasions he visited rgya ma rin chen sgang and rwa sgreng.
After that he journeyed to gnyal, lo ro and lho brag, as well as to 'u gu do and thang po che. He especially spent a considerable time at thang po che, and preached there numerous sermons. Up to that time, in order to test the faith of the lo tsa ba (khro phu), he acted as an avaricious man, but later he gave away most of his wealth towards the erection of the image of Maitreya at khro phu. In the year Water Male Ape (chu pho spre'u 1212 A.D.), when the time had come to consecrate the image, they found themselves short of funds, and because of this, the mahā-paṇḍita proceeded again towards dbus and g.yo, gnyal and lo, and lho brag (to gather funds). His entire income was presented to the great image of Maitreya. From the 3rd day till the 13th day of the dre month (dre'i zla ba) of the year Water Male Ape (chu pho spre'u 1212 A.D.) the Dharmasvāmin performed the consecration rite of the great image of Maitreya, and numerous wonderful signs accompanied (the rite).
After that numerous priests begged him to stay on in Tibet, but he did not agree to that, saying that he had important work to do in Kāśmīra. After that he journeyed through Southern la stod and benefited many disciples. The presents received by him, were distributed among the monks of each monastery. On his arrival at gung thang, he presented 130 golden srangs (to khro phu lo tsa ba), and said: "Give them as remuneration to the {R 1071} image makers".
After that the lo tsa ba escorted him to glo bo. One morning he (the mahā-paṇḍita) dismissed his entire retinue, and did not admit any one into his presence, but said: "Lo tsa ba come," The lo tsa ba having hurried into his presence, the mahā-paṇḍita said to him: "Open your hand!" and then gave him a big package of gold, the lo tsa ba's hand almost reaching the ground under its weight. The lo tsa ba said: ?You have already given me many presents for the image. You had better take this much with you to Kāśmīra." An attendant then told him: "It is better for you to accept the siddhi when given. You may feel regret if this gold gets into the hands of Kashmirian rogues." So he accepted it, and escorted the mahā-paṇḍita to the foot of the mountain pass.
On his way to Kāśmīra, the mahā-paṇḍita was twice attacked by robbers, but as he had no gold with him, nothing harmed him. Then he reached Kāśmīra. Though the Doctrine had spread in Kāśmīra, the priests were few in numbers. The Dharmasvāmin increased the number of priests, and established the right path of the method of the Tantras and Sutras. The king who had become a heretic, was again established in the Doctrine. The mahā-paṇḍita repaired ruined vihāras and images. Amidst such labours he spent 12 years in Kāśmīra, and passed away in the year Wood Female Hen (shing mo bya 1225 A.D.) amidst wonderful signs.
This great paṇḍita preached numerous doctrines which belonged to the Āgamas and Sciences, Sūtras and Tantras. Great was the number of those whom he established in the vows of the Pratimokṣa, but the two men, who had taken the final monastic ordination in the presence of the mahā-paṇḍita and had taken the vow of a "single mat" (stan gcig gi brtul zhugs 'dzin pa), were rdo rje dpal and byang chub dpal.
Namo Maitrīnāthāya! Munīndra, Śāriputra, Rāhula, the kṣatriya, Rāhula, the brāhmaṇa, Nāgārjuna, Guṇamati, Ratna-mitra, Śrī Dharmapāla, Guṇasāgara, Dharmapāla, Ākaragupta, the mahā-paṇḍita Śākyaśrī, Vajraśrībhadra (rdo rje dpal bzang po), byang chub dpal bzang po, {R 1072} 'od zer dpal, chos kyi rgyal mtshan, sangs rgyas rin chen, bsod names dpal, ses rab mgon po, seng ge rgyal mtshan, bsod nams dbang phyug, bkra shis tshul khrims, tshul khrims rin chen, sangs rgyas blo gros, byang chub rgyal dbang, bkra shis seng ge, yon tan rin chen, byang chub bzang po, blo gros rgyal mtshan, don grub dpal 'byor, byang chub grags pa, and bkra shis byang chub.
From the departure of the mahā-paṇḍita from Tibet in the year Water Female Hen (chu mo bya 1213 A.D.) to the present Fire Male Ape year (me pho spre'u 1476 A.D.) 264 years have passed.
The abbots of tshogs pa bya rdzong:
dkon mchog rgyal mtshan, thugs rje dpal pa, dar ma dpal pa, kun dga' dpal pa, gzhon nu bzang po pa, tshul khrims dpal pa, the mahā-upādhyāya kun dga' dpal pa, sangs rgyas gzhon nu pa, dar ma bzang po pa, tshul mgon pa, bsod nams 'od zer, rin tshul pa, bsod names shes rab, sher mgon pa, grags bsod pa, sher ?phags pa, shes tshul pa, rin she pa (rin chen shes rab), chos dpal pa, shes 'od pa, kun she pa, grags rgyal ba, dpal tshul pa (dpal 'byor tshul khrims), rin grub pa (rin chen grub), dcang she pa (dbang phyug shes rab), and zla rin pa (zla ba rin chen).
The abbots of dge 'dun sgang:
lho brag byang chub dpal, gtsang pa dbang phyug grags, gzhon nu byang chub, 'dul tshad pa byang chub bzang po, 'jam dbyangs don grub dpal, yon tan rgyal mtshan, dpal grub pa, snyag phu ba, yon tan blo gros, brtson rgyal ba, seng ge dpal pa, {R 1073} chos grub pa, blo gros rgyal mtshan, yon tan lhun grub, nam mkha' dpal bzang, and dpal yon pa. Also nam mkha dpal bzang, nam mkha' lhun bzangs, and rab 'byor seng ge.
The abbots of chos lung:
dbu mdzad bsod names stobs, after him the maha-upādhyāya bde ba dpal, grags pa gzhon nu, byan sems bsod grags, bsod nams bzang po, gzhon nu mgon po, grags pa rgyal mtshan, grags pa bshe gnyen, nam mkha' rgyal mtshan, rin chen rgyal mtshan, bshes gnyen rgyal mchog, rgyal dbang grags pa, zla ba blo gros, rgyal ba phyag na, bshes gnyen bzang po, mgon po bkra shis, and nyi ma rgyal mtshan.
The Chapter on the Lineages of Abbots of the four monasteries which belonged to the Lineage of the Kashmirian mahā-paṇḍita, and about the mahā-paṇḍita himself.
15.2 The Gandenpa [Tradition] (dge ldan pa?i skabs. Chandra 953; Chengdu 1249; Roerich 1073).
More than seven hundred and twenty years after the birth of the religious king srong btsan sgam po, the All-knowing blo bzang grags pa'i dpal appeared in this World, having been born in the year Fire Female Hen (me mo bya 1357 A.D.), in the region of tsong kha. In his youth he was introduced into the gates of the Pratimokśa and Tantra by the great kalyāṇa-mitra don grub rin chen, who said: "In the provinces of dbus and gtsang study this and that" (%) (the Biography/rnam thar/, fol. 9a, of rje tsong kha pa contains the following passage:
"His Teacher wrote down his instructions in slokas, but when tson kha pa reached Tibet, he lost the piece of paper /on which the verses were written/ and though he searched for it, he did not find it again. Later he forgot most of the verses, but those which lie remembered, were as follows:
"O youthful blo bzang grags pa! You are under the influence of your virtuous works performed in your former lives.
{R 1074} Verily you were endowed with the. faculty of imbibing the nectar of the Good Law in your former lives!...
You will first study earnestly the Abhisamayālaṃkāra which is the ornament of three "Mothers" (the Large, the Middle and the Abridged versions of the Prajn͂͂āpāramitā).
If you become learned in it, you will be able to master all the Scriptures.
Keep this advice in a corner of your mind!
Then, as a branch subject, you should study the Mahāyāna Sūtralaṃkāra which expounds the Path and Practice of the Bodhisattvas, the Śāstra Dharmadharmatāvibhaṅga which describes the Saṃsāra as the foundation of Nirvāṇa, and the treatise entitled Madhyāntavibhaṅga which preaches the Middle Path, which is without beginning or end, and the Mahayāna Uttara-Tantra which expounds the existence of the Pure Nature of the Mind present in all living beings, and describes it as the Tathāgata-garbha.
You must use these Five Treatises of Maitreya as your "Armour of Knowledge". After that you should study:
The Three body-like Śāstras (lus dang 'dra ba'i b'stan bcos gsum) : the large Śāstra Pramāṇavārtika, the Pramāṇaviniścaya, the middle-sized, the Nyāyabindu, the Abridged. And the (four) so-called "Lamp-like" treatise ('phros pa yan lag lta bu) comprising the Hetubindu, the Saṃbandhaparīkṣaprakaraṇa, the Santānantarasiddhi-nāma-prakaraṇa, and the Vādanyāya-nāma-prakaraṇa. These "Seven Treatises on Logic", composed by Dharmakirti are the Light of the Buddha's Doctrine in Jambudvīpa, and are famed as Sun and Moon".
Several verses were forgotten by tsong kha pa. Further he remembered the following:
"You wise one; should feel devotion towards. the theory of the absence of Extremes.
You should study the Six Treatises of the Mādhyamaka {R 1075} composed by Ārya Nāgārjuna and the Treatises based on them."
At first tsong kha pa attended on many kalyāṇa-mītras at skyi 'sod. Later he attended on the Venerable gzhon nu blo gros. He studied most of the Piṭakas. He was of the opinion that except for the practice of wisdom (prajṅā), there was no other path of emancipation. Since this doctrine was based on the sastras of the Mādhyamaka school, he studied it diligently.
In the field of Tantras, he found the Śrī-Guhyasamāja-Tantra to be the chief of all the Tantras. He searched for its Essence. In his opinion the All-knowing bu ston was the Master of a great number of Tantras (Yoga-Tantra). He studied this class of Tantras with gon gsum bde then pa chos kyi dpal pa and khyung pa lhas pa. He held the opinion that the Vinaya of the Holy Doctrine was the basis of the entire Doctrine of Buddha, and studied earnestly the system of the Vinaya under the mahā-upādhyāya skyor lung pa.
While he was staying among fellow-students of philosophy, though endowed with perfect understanding of the Scriptures (Āgamas) and Sciences (Logic), he avoided such practices, as abusing others, shouting, running, jumping and dancing, and felt very sad and downcast. So I have been told by my Teachers.
After that he chiefly benefitted others by expounding to them the Doctrine. Once, when many wise men had gathered, similar to geese on a lotus pond, among them there was a teacher named dbu ma pa, who in his childhood had a fleeting vision of the Venerable Man͂͂juśrī. Later, while engaged in meditation, he obtained a clear vision of the Bodhisattva, and used to inquire about his daily work from the Bodhisattva. tsong kha pa obtained from him the initiation of the Venerable One (Man͂͂juśrī) and recited mantras.
Within a short time he obtained a clear vision of the Bodhisattva, and was able to put questions to the Bodhisattva, in the manner of a disciple to his teacher, and obtained {R 1076} answers. Most of the time he beheld the Bodhisattva, and obtained his instructions. The Venerable One foretold him that should he lead the life of an ascetic he would be able to benefit the Doctrine greatly, more so than in the present state. He did accordingly, and in the company of several companions he proceeded towards 'ol kha. There he practised meditation in hermitages, as far as bum thang in mon.
About that time he studied with the mahā-upādhyāya chos skyabs bzang po, whose mind had reached the lofty stage by the practice of the bka' gdams pa precepts, and the mahā-upādhyāya las kyi rdo rje, who never abandoned the practice of Bodhisattvas, assisted by the manifestation of the Body, Speech and Mind of Guhyapati, the lam rim composed by Śrī Dīpaṅkarajn͂͂āna, and practised it. He spent one day at the foot of the mo la pass of gnal. There he received a prophecy, which said: "You will become a Buddha in this World. Know it!" His Tutelary deity also prophesied to him that he could benefit others by following the vows of the Vinaya:
Following these indications, the Teacher and his disciples wore religious garments which were cut according to the Vinaya rules, as well as the patra and the mat, and other articles (prescribed by the Vinaya). When others saw them, they felt that this was the very manner of ordained priests.
Later he introduced to the Vinaya the disciples who wanted to hear from him the Doctrine during a year or a month. And not only that, for (it was said) that the mere hearing of his name from a distance, caused the hair of the body to stand erect. His fame enveloped all quarters and he became a matchless one. Not being satisfied with the mere vows of the Pratimokṣa, he developed in his disciples a mental yearning towards Enlightenment which consisted of a solemn wish and practice (of Bodhisattvas):
He also composed a Śāstra expounding the observance of the vows of the above. In {R 1077} his opinion one could practise the vows of Bodhisattvas for tens of millions of Kalpas but, if one did not possess the wisdom intuiting the Absolute, one would not be able to cross over the Ocean of Phenomenal Existence. Therefore he composed a treatise expounding the precepts of the degrees of the Path of the three kinds of individuals, which expounded clearly the above system. In his opinion the degrees of the Path of Enlightenment were almost complete in the above system (expounded in the lam rim), but that it was necessary to be initiated into the system of Tantras which enabled one to obtain Buddhahood in this very life. Thus he wrote many Śāstras describing the degrees of the Path (of Tantra). Especially, he composed precepts and commentaries on the Śrī-Guhyasamāja-Tantra basing himself on the texts by the ācārya Nāgārjuna and the latter's disciples.
At first he laboured, for the welfare of others and visited many different, countries. In the beginning of the year Earth Female Ox (sa mo glang 1409 A.D.) he held the Great Prayer Assembly (smon lam chen mo), and brought down the light of the Doctrine on those who had gathered. In the same year he founded the monastery of dge ldan rnam par rgyal ba'i gling. Then in the year Wood Female Sheep (shing mo lug 1415 A.D.) he proceeded towards bkra shis do kha of 'on, and revolved the Wheel of the Doctrines of the Tantras and Sutras. He gathered a few Tripiṭakadharas and classified the difficult points {R 1078} of the Doctrine. He spent over two months there.
After that having come to dge ldan, he built the outer chapel (phyi'i mchod khang), and inside it erected a Tantric mandala made of precious stones. In the year Earth Female Hog (sa mo phag 1419 A.D.) he went to the hot springs of stod luns. When he was preaching the Śrī-Guhyasamāja-Tantra to numerous kalyāNa-mitras, who had gathered in the vihāra of dpal 'bras spungs, he placed his preacher's chair facing dge ldan.
After completing the exposition of the ninth chapter (of the Guhyasamāja-Tantra), he proceeded to dge Idan. On his way there he performed the consecration rite at gsang sngags mkhar. He received an invitation from lha spur gru bzhi pa. While he was residing there, a loud sound of a divine bell resounded from the Sky, and following it he proceeded to the mansion (gzims khan) of dge ldan. On arrival there, he presented to the Dharmasvāmin rgyal tshab rin po che a hat and a mantle which symbolized his appointment to the abbot's chair. When he sat meditating, his face shone like that of a sixteen-year old boy, and this was seen by his disciples. Immediately after it, he passed into the Immaculate Sphere (dag pa?i dbyings).
The above is a brief story of the deeds of the Venerable All-knowing. By the grace of this Venerable One, even those of the monks who had not seen his face, and were residing at distant plates, wore the religious robe (cīvara, chos gos) and kept with themselves the (meditative) mat, the alms-bowl (pātra) and the other articles (prescribed by the Vinaya). They discarded the wearing of the hood (sdud ma) as a cloak, and instead wore the mantle (zla gam), and changed the colour of their hats to that of gold.
{R1079} The above is an account of his greatness as seen by ordinary human beings. Now his intrinsic greatness:
In the story about the instructions given by the guhyapati Vajrapāṇi to the mahā-upādhyāya las kyi rdo rje (Karmāvajra), it is said: "Even I, Vajrapāni, was unable to grasp the measure of the merit of Sumatikikirtiśrī.? In the above reliable text (it is stated): "After that lie will become the Bodhisattva Man͂͂juśrīgarbha (?jam dpal snying po) in the Heaven of Tuṣita. In future he will become the Tathāgata Siṃhāsvara (seng ge'i nga ro)."
From the above quotations one understands that He has been a being with a straight forward Mind, dwelling on a lofty stage (of spiritual evolution), who had cone here for the welfare of living beings. His Regent (rgyal tshab) was one filled with aversion towards the entire World, endowed with an enlightened Mind, unhindered (in the unterstanding) of all the systems (expounded) in the basic texts of the Tantras and Sūtras. He possessed a personality bound by pure undefiled morality, even in case of the smallest transgressions. He showed perseverance in meritorious deeds without abandoning them even for a single moment. He acted as abbot for 13 years till the year Iron Female Hog (lcags mo phag 1431 A.D.). In this year he handed, over the abbotship to mkhas grub dge legs dpal, and himself embraced a solitary life, and departed to Potala (i.e. died) in the year Water Male Mouse (chu pho byi ba 1432 A.D.) at the age of 69.
mkhas grub dge legs dpal occupied the abbot's chair for eight years till the year Earth Male Horse (sa pho rta 1438 A.D.), and then passed away. The Dharmasvāmin legs pa rgyal mtshan was born in the year Wood Hare (shing yos 1375 A.D.), {R 1080} and became abbot (of dge ldan) in the year Earth Female Sheep (sa mo lug 1439 A.D.), at the age of 65. He died at the age of 76 in the year Iron Male Horse (lcags pho rta 1450 A.D.). drung blo gros pa was born in the year Earth Female Serpent, (sa mo sbrul 1389 A.D.), and became abbot in the year Iron Male Horse (lags pho rta 1950 A.D.), at the age of 62. He remained abbot till the year Water Female Sleep (chu mo lug 1463 A.D.), during which he appointed to the chair ba so ba, aged 62, and himself became an ascetic. After that they asked the Dharmasvāmin blo gros brtan pa to occupy the chair.
He is still alive performing meritorious deeds.
The Chapter on dge ldan.
15.3 Nalanda [Monastery] (na landa pa?i skabs. Chandra 958; Chengdu 1258; Roerich 1080).
smra ba'i seng ge rong ston chen po:
He was a Bodhisattva endowed with the power of solemn wish (smon lam gyi mthu can). He was born as son of a bon po family at the rgyal mo rong in the year Fire Female Sheep (me mo lug 1367 A.D.). In his youth he proceeded to dbus and gtsang. He studied the sciences at gsang phu. At the age of 20, he mastered the Pramāṇaviniścaya and became matchless in philosophical debates (rigs pa smra ba). He took the vows of Pratimokṣa at gro sar before dmar ston chen po. He attended on different teachers, and mastered all the Piṭakas.
Between his studies he preached the Piṭakas to many wise men in fulfilment of their wishes at many localities in South and North la stod, in Upper and Lower gtsang, and at dbu and g.yor. He constantly preached the Abhisamayālaṃkāra and its commentary, following mainly on the method (mdzad srol) of the mahā-upādhyāya sangs rgyas dpal. He held in high esteem the "Later" Lineage of the zi byed doctrine which included hidden precepts of the above.
He, being endowed with the power of solemn wish (smon lam), nothing is said {R 1081} about his clashes with local deities, or about the Teacher and his disciples suffering front epidemics. Thus he did not suffer from any kind of accidents. He did not possess even the slightest attachment towards wealth and property. He used to say: "It is improper for a kalyāṇa-mitra to count the price of one or two measures (of grain) received from his disciples. A kalyāṇa-mitra should know how to establish a concomitance." He used to say to his disciples who had purified their Inner Self, that "this bond which has no beginning, is enough for us. You may follow any kind of theories conforming to your mind." Outwardly he seems to have concentrated on the preaching of the Doctrine only. Inwardly he practised constantly Yoga, and was able to recognize the different shades of the pan͂͂ca-prāṇā (rlung lnga).
When the nail of his big toe fell off, it transformed itself into a pearl shell.
In the year Wood Female Hare (shing nro yos 1435 A.D.) he founded the monastery of Nālandā, and said: "ar byang chub ye ses died while preaching the Prajn͂͂apātamitā. I shall also make my disciples remove my corpse from the preacher's chair (chos khri)." Once the Piṭakadhara dge ba rgyal mtshan told him that he had seen in a dream that a serious accident was to befall him during that year and that he should recite mantras and perform rites (in order to remove the evil influences). He replied: "I am not the subject of the ācārya dge rgyal's prophecy. Let any kind of accidents take place! I shall live till the age of 83!? True to his words he passed away at the age of 83 in the year Earth Female Serpent (sa mo sbrul 1449 A.D.). According to his instructions, his corpse was not to be removed from the preacher's chair. Not more than two days must have passed between his last preaching and his death (i.e. he had passed away on the chair). In his usual conversation he used to say: "I shall nor become a boorish khams pa like (the present one). I shall become a devaputra drinking nectar in the heaven of {R 1082} Tuṣita!" Therefore now he must be surely residing in Tuṣita.
Before his passing, into Nirvāṇa, he appointed to the Abbot's chair the Dharmasvāmin bkra shis rnam rgyal. This one also laboured extensively for the benefit of the Doctrine, preached, erected large images, etc. He was born in the year Earth Male Tiger (sa pho stag 1398 A.D.) and passed away at the age of 61. The Dharmasvāmin dge ba rgyal mtshan was born in the year Water Male Dog (chu pho kbyi 1382 A.D.). He came to the chair at the age of 77 in the year Earth Tiger (sa stag 1458 A.D ), and lived till the year Water Horse (chu rta 1462 A.D.) for five years, when he died. bdag po rgya gar ba was born in the year Earth Female Sheep (sa mo lug 1439. A.D.), and became abbot in the year Water Horse (chi rta 1462 A.D.), at the age of 24. He acted as abbot for five years, till the year Fire Male Dog (me mo khyi 1466 A.D.). He entrusted (the abbotship) to glang thang rin po che, who appointed to the abbot's chair the Dharmasvāmin gung ru, and himself became an ascetic.
The Chaper on the monastery of Nālandā.
15.4 Tsethang [Monastery] (rtses thang pa?i skabs. Chandra 960; Chengdu 1260; Roerich 1082).
This great monastery of dpal rtses thang was founded in the year Iron Female Hare (lcags mo yos 1351 A.D.) by ta'1 si tu byang chub royal mtshan famed in all quarters. A ruined octagonal upper structure (dbu rtse) erected in the time of klu mes stood there. Having begun work in the autumn, (byang chub rgyal mtshan) built the court-yard facing this upper structure. To the West of it, inside the court-yard, he built a temple with its door facing East. The octagonal structure having fallen in ruin, he thought that it might have a bad effect on the prognostication of the omens of the locality (sa dpyad), and therefore removed it towards the western mountains. He also built about forty large houses to accommodate monks, as well as a high wall.
After this, in the year Water Male Dragon (chu pho 'brug 1352 A.D.) he invited there numerous priests from various monasteries in order to give a start to the study of the Doctrine. He endowed (the monastery) with property for the upkeep of preachers. He {R 1083} also established the distribution of food, tea and soup to the common monks.
He appointed to the abbot's chair jam pa'i dbyans Śākyargyal mtshan, aged 13, who was able to recite by heart four of the famous series of five volumes. For four years he maintained a class (of students). At the age of 26, the retired to the Palace (rtse).
Then rgyal sras grags pa rin chen, who was born in the year Earth Female Ox (sa mo glang 1349 A.D.), aged 17, came to the abbot's chair in the year Wood Female Serpent (shing ma sbrul 1365 A.D ). He passed away at the age of 19 in the year Fire Female Sheep (me mo lug 1367 A.D.).
After him the ācārya 'jam sngon pa acted as teacher (bla chos gsung ba) in the year Earth Male Ape (sa pho spre'u 1368 A.D.). At the end of this year, rin po she bsod nams grags pa, born in the year Earth Female Hog (sa mo phag 1359 A.D.), aged 10, came to the chair. He occupied the chair till the year Iron Ape (lcags spre 1380 A.D.), and held a religious assembly in lha sa.
In the year Iron Female Hen (lcags mo bya 1381 A.D.) he retired to the Palace (rtse). He was replaced by grags pa rgyal mtshan, born in the year Wood Male Tiger (shing pho stag 1374 A.D.), aged 8, who came to the chair in the year Iron Female Hen (lcags mo bya 1381 A.D.), and preached the Pramāṇavārtika. At the age of 12, before the end, of the year Wood Female Ox (shing mo glang 1385 A.D.), he retired to the Palace (rtse). In this Wood Female Ox (shing mo glang 1385 A.D.) he retired to the Palace (rtse).
In this Wood Ox year (shing glang 1385 A.D.) one named drung byang chub rdo rje, born in the year Fire Female Serpent (me mo sbrul 1377 A.D.), came to the chair, aged 9. He occupied the chair for 44 years till his death in the year Earth Male Ape (so pho spre'u 1428 A.D.). During that time he made the monastery prosperous and wealthy. From the winter retreat of this year, 'jam dbyangs grags pa 'byung gras pa, born in the year Wood Male Horse (shing pho rta 1414 A.D.), aged 15, acted as abbot. In the sixth {R 1084} month of the year Wood Male Mouse (chu pho byi ba 1432 A.D.) he retired to the Palace (rtse).
Then during 12 years there was no abbot, but he supervised the monastery from the Palace, He built a great image (lha chen), a great vihāra and prepared a bka' 'gyur written in gold, and placed it inside (the vihāra). He did not allow women and wine within the precincts of the monastery, as well as cared well for the teachers and student-monks. After that, beginning with the Wood Male Mouse (shing pho byi ba 1444 A.D.), drung kun dga' legs pa'i 'byung gnas was appointed civil official (nan so) of rtses thang. In the year Fire Male Tiger (me pho stag 1446 A.D.) he ('jam dbyangs grags pa 'byung gnas) preached a new exposition (bshad gsar). In the summer of the year Earth Male Dragon (sa pho 'brug 1448 A.D.) he retired to the Palace. From this Earth-Dragon year the che sa sangs rgyas rgyal mtshan acted as civil official (nan so) for ten years, without occupying the chair, and passed away in the winter of the Fire Female Ox year (me mo glang 1457 A.D.).
After him rdo rje rin chen dbang gi rgyal mtshan occupied the chair in the seventh month of the year Fire Female Hog (me mo phag 1467 A.D.).
This great monastery was a place filled with different monks belonging to different sects, whose preaching and study continued without interruption, as well as a place producing all the wishes of living beings. It was a self refuge for preachers, who wandered about countries. This great monastery was. founded in the year Iron Female Hare (lcags mo yos 1351 A.D.), 126 years having passed since then till the year Fire Male Ape (me pho spre'u 1476 A.D.).
The Chapter on rtses thang.
15.4a Untitled responses to questions regarding the Blue Annals (Chandra 962; Chengdu 1263; Roerich 1084).
Now I shall reply to questions put in connection with the "Blue Annals". There exists a disagreement between the (different) accounts of the "Later" Propagation of the Doctrine. I also find it difficult to make up my mind. I have compiled this chapter basing myself on ancient accounts.
In regard to the {R 1085} teacher from whom klu mes received ordination, and the story of his labours in dbus and gtsang, I believe (the account) composed by pa shi gnas brtan to be (nearest to truth). I followed exclusively on his version, because the author was a direct disciple of klu mes. In that chapter I have mentioned his name.
As regards the story that these two had different preceptors, I have merely repeated his (pa shi gnas brtan) words. The two (preceptors) seem to have been sba and rag, since they belong to one group. I have written about the (group) of the "Ten men of dbus and gtsang" (dbus gtsang mi bcu) basing myself on accounts by bu ston and others. (In this question) it is difficult for me to express my own opinion. According to bu ston these "Ten Men" were: from dbus - the Five: klu mes, sum pa, rag shi, sba and 'bring; from gtsang: the Two - lo and tshong, the two brothers 'o brgyad and u pa de dkar. Again according to others there have been eight only: from dbus klu mes, sum pa; from gtsang lo and tshong; from mnga' ris pa shi rdzi dkar ba - six in all; then sba and rag.
Again there are some who are of the opinion that 'bring has been 'bri rdzi dkar ba because of the absence of any mention of the existence of written works by 'bri rdzi dkar ba in mnga' ris. Thus I have based my account on statements made by others, and I do not give them as my own opinion. It is a fact that in dbus, klu mes, sum pa and 'bring have founded monasteries, and monastic communities. ka ba Śākya dban phyug was an able disciple of sba and rag, who were mentioned in a group. It is also true that in gtsang the number of monasteries increased thanks to lo and tshong. (These facts) I accept.
Having compiled numerous accounts, I have mentioned the authors' names, for the sake of investigation. The story that the lo tsa ba rin chen bzang po, aged 13, had been ordained by the upādhyāya ye shes bzang po in mnga' ris proper, is found in the biography (rnam thar) of the lo tsa ba composed by one named khri thang Jn͂͂āna. According to it, the lo tsa ba had been ordained in the year Iron Male Horse (lcags pho rta?970 A.D.). {R 1086} The third year after this event, the Water Female Hen (chu mo bya 973 A.D.) is the first year of the Period of the "Later" Propagation of the Doctrine, as stated in the History of the Doctrine by bu ston rin po che who based (his occount) on a story told by an old woman.
The year Earth Male Tiger (sa pho stag 978 A.D.), which was the fifth year after the Water Female Hen year (chu mo bya 973 A.D.), is the first year of the Period of the "Later" Propagation (of the Doctrine) according to 'brom ston pa. Again in later times Atīśa became the Master of the Doctrine, and all bka' gdams pas agree that the year of Atīśa's coming was a Horse year (rta lo), but there exists a disagreement as to the element (dban than) of the year. After thoroughly examining the biographies of rgya ma pa, uncle and nephew, sne'u zur pa, spyan snga and spu to pa, one can state that Atīśa came (to Tibet) in the year Water Male Horse (chu pho rta 1042 A.D.). This was the 61st year of Atīśa. After a minute examination of ancient chronicles, I consider the above account, as well as the history of the Lineage from rje mar pa to rngog, and that of mid la to sgam po pa, to be reliable accounts.
Similarly there is no mistake in the number of years after mkhon dkon mchog rgyal po in the Lineage of the sa skya pas. There exist also many other (accounts) in which there are no mistakes in the number of years. Further, some of the other accounts were narrated by me according to the statements of other (authors). Again there are other accounts written by me without investigating them, basing myself on statements made by others. In short, I consider the date of the religious king srong btsan sgam po, and the dates of Atīśa, 'brom, and others, as well as that of rngog, Master of the Doctrine, to be correct. This must be kept in mind.
15.5 The carving of the woodblocks (par du bsgrubs pa?i skabs. Chandra 964; Chengdu 1265; Roerich 1086).
Now I shall give a chapter on the one who has laboured most for the sake of the present work. The patron (of his work) {R 1087} was the khri dpon of bya named bkra shis dar rgyas, endowed with the power of extraordinary fortune, adorned with wisdom, faith and generosity. Now I shall relate his story:
In general, in this country of Tibet, people call a country by the name of the clan which occupies the greater part of the region. For instance rod pa sa, dgyer pa sa. The borderland of ma yul rdzong in Lower yar klungs was called bya sa because most of its inhabitants belonged to the clan of bya.
In this country, filled with all kinds of wishes, lived two brothers named chos kyi ka ba, "Pillar of Religion" and his younger brother thod pa gyu'i smin ma can, "One with turquoise eyebrows". The younger brother had two sons - the upādhyāya yon tan mchog and bya sha ka.
The one named the upādhyāya yon tan mchog was ordained at 'bring sde, and acted as upādhyāya to others. He rebuilt the gangs par lha khang and took over the four monasteries: klogs in gye, sa mtha' in bya, dro mda' in dags po, stin mo mig in dmyal, and called them the "Four Sons of gangs par" (gangs par gyi bu bzhi). bya sa ka had, two sons: rdo rje legs pa and rdo rje dbang phyug. In their lifetime they came to dmyal, and founded rgya mtsho grong mkhar.
The Son of rdo rje dbang phyug was rin chen 'od, the great teacher of bya nag (the bla ma bya nag chen po). At the age of 41, he met the mahā-paṇḍita of Kāśmīra (Śākyaśrībhadra), and obtained from him many doctrines, such as the twelve maṅḍalas of the Tantra, and others. He also followed on many holy men, such as rgyal ba thog dugs pa, skyo 'od 'byung, gzhang rta rmig pa, and others, and was learned in all branches of Science. He was adorned with spiritual realization. In particular, he was able to employ as his attendants the religious protectors of the Tantras, such as spu gri bskor gsum, {R 1088} and others. His fame encompassed the entire Snow Land (Tibet).
He had four spiritual sons: in Lower bya - mtshal sgom chos la dga' ba; at lo ro - rab dga' ba chen po; at dags po - ba tsho ras pa; at gtang - 'u yug pa, the Great.
The four "original monasteries" (rtsa ba'i sde bzhi): at dmyal - chos sgro gaong (% - this seems to be a mistake ? mes) mkhar; at gye - se bo; at dags - na mo shod; at bya - rgya mtsho thug tshang.
The son of a mi bya nag chen po - bya jo sras. His son (was) bya mnga' bdag who had three sons: gcen pa dgesloi pa, bya rin chen, and chos rgyal dpal bzang. These three were known as the bya rigs gsum mgon po.
dge slong pa's sons were: rin chen dpal, dbang phyug rin chen, rin chen bzang po, and dags po pa, g.ye, dags. dmyal, bya, and lo ro were his dependencies, and he owned much landed property. bya rin chen ruled over g.ye, dmyal, bya, dags, and lo ro. He repelled the Mongol troops, and was recognised as chief of all the above localities. He and the mahāsiddha ur brgyan pa became priest and supporter. His son was kun dga" rin chen.
His descendants were numerous, and owned much landed property. This kun dga' rin chen met the great official (dpon chen) of sa skya - kun dga' bzang po. bya chos rgyal dpal bzang made peace with the Mongols. At the age of 12, he met 'gro mgon 'phags pa. He requested shar pa kun bsod pa to become his teacher, and heard from him all the three Tantras (rgyud gsum) together with hidden precepts, etc. He built the vihāra of yangs rtse, and prepared a copy of the bka' 'gyur written in gold. He gathered the tax which consisted of the produce of the kingdom, and kept it at mdzod nag. He laid the foundation of the Royal law, and introduced perfect order in both religious and secular affairs, which excelled that of other (kings).
His sons were: kun dga'rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po, the mahā-upādhyāya spyil bu pa, mnga' bdag chos seng 'od, bya lkug pa dpal, and others. kun dga rgyal mtshan {R 1089} proceeded to 'dam and requested the dpon chen 'od zer seng ge to grant him an official title. The latter bestowed one on him. The official chos rgyal dpal bzang of sgu rab pa also revered him. The incident of rta'u ra pa also took place in his time.
After him dpal mgon rdo rje and his son drun blo gros ruled over the region. After them, the son of kun dga' rgyal mtshan - rgya ma pa kun dga' bsod nams ruled over his and the monasteries' subjects.
After him mnga 'bdag chos seng, son of chos rgyal dpal bzang and the queen of 'bri khung, was appointed official of cya and dags by 'bri khung pa. His son was the mahā-upādhāya tshul khrims bzang po. When he was acting as abbot of zangs po che, at the unanimous request of the local inhabitants he mounted the throne of yangs rtse, and laboured for the good of the Doctrine, and the welfare of living beings. He took under his protection all the monasteries, their serfs and the local inhabitants.
After him, his son dkon mchog bzang po, the holder of the religious and secular domains, was appointed official by his father. His son bkra shis deal bzang studied in his youth at rtses thang. He held a perfect festival of preaching. chos rgyal grags pa rgyal mtshan appointed him as khri dpon of bya pa.
His sons were: rgyal ba bkra shis, Śākya dpal mgon, thub pa rgyal msthan, and others. rgyal ba bkra shis proceeded to sne gdong. He became an attendant of the superior grags pa (gong ma grags pa 'byung gnas). From sne gdong he was appointed khri dpon of bya pa. His younger brother Śākya dpal mgon was ordained by the mahā-upādhāya yon dbang, and conducted studies. Since the time of his appointment as abbot of zangs po che, he continued to perform virtuous deeds of benefit to the Doctrine of Buddha.
The sons of rgyal ba bkra shis were: bya bkra shis dar rgyas, pad ma bltams mchog rgyal po, the incarnation of sgo gcig pa, bya tshe dbang rgyal po, bskal bzangs chos kyi rgya mtsho bsod nams mang thos dbang po'i sde, and bya nor bu rgya mtsho. Bya bkra shis dar rgyas {R 1090} married the Princess named rdo rje gos dkar ma. chos rgyal nor bu bkra shis mi 'gyur dbang po'i sde and his brother grags pa rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po were born to them.
bya bkra shis dar rgyas legs pa'i rgyal po phyogs thams cad las rnam par rgyal ba dbang po'i sde: He was appointed khri dpon of lho rgyud after (the death) of his father by order of the king rdo rje rin chen dbang gi rgyal po of rtses thang. Again, from sne gdong he obtained the official title (bkos) of ja' sa and the official robe. He ruled over the bya pas. His deeds and fame were great in both the religious and secular spheres. Each of the khri dpons of bya pa were endowed with great fame. The king (sa skyong), who enjoyed both the religious and secular spheres, as he would a summer stream, at the suggestion of the dpal ldan lo tsa ba chen po bsod nams rgya mtsho?i sde, who was a great and all knowing Lord endowed with a perfect vision before which all the scriptures of the Jina were revealed, a siddheśvara who had realized the sahaja jJJ͂͂āna, arranged for the paying of expenses and labour in a way which did not contradict the Doctrine. In the beginning the copyists (par yig) were paid by dpal rdo rje bde ma who patronized impartially different religious sects.
In lhun grub lha rtse, a district of dbus, the holy kalyāṇa mitra dpal chos kyi rgyal mtshan, who was a follower of the teaching of the Venerable One (bsod nams rgya mtsho'i sde) and the mahā-sthavira dge legs dpal mgon, endowed with wisdom and characterized by strictness and propriety, corrected (the text), as desired by the Venerable great lo tsa ba. shar dags po pa dpal phyogs thams cad las rnam par rgyal ba'i lha who was endowed with the faculty of giving a logical and free interpretation of all the vehicles of the Tantras and Sūtras, supervised the proper execution of the work.
The head copyist (yi ge?i rig byed pa) was nyi shar bkra shis, a native of dol, which was a source of knowledge (rig pa'i 'byung gnas). The chief block maker (brkos kyi rig byed pa) {R 1091}was one named grags pa rgyal mtshan. The dexterity of his and his disciples' hands showed itself in this virtuous work. They started the work in the year Iron Female Ox (lcags mo glang 1481 A.D.), and completed it at the great Palace called chos rgyal lhun po in a district of dmyal, which was the essence of the land and a place where the streams of most excellent prosperity had merged into each other.
By virtue of this may the Precious Doctrine of the Jina live long!
May the Holy Men, holders of the Doctrine, live long!
May the monastic community observe the Holy Doctrine by day and by night!
May the supporters and their retinues rule according to the Doctrine!
May the kingdom live without internal strife!
May we in our next lives meet the Holy Men and the kalyāna-mitras!
May we labour extensively for the Doctrine of the Buddha!
The Chapter on the execution of the block-print edition (of the "BLUE ANNALS'').
15.5a Author colophon (Chandra 969; Chengdu 1271; Roerich 1091).
Resting on the golden foundation (gser gyi sa gzhi) of the blessing of the Great Merciful One (Avalokiteśvara),
Surrounded by majestic snow mountains,
Where eternal streams of monks flow from the Anavatapta (ma dros pa) Lake of Morality,
Which had removed the heat of defilement and is filled with jewels of preaching and meditation,
Where the Mount Aśvamukha of scholars is sounding the mighty blast of the Doctrine,
Where lies the source of all goodness,
This Land of Snows (Tibet), similar to a great ocean, deserves to be praised by scholars.
The story of the Immaculate Precious Doctrine of the Jina, handed down from Holy Men to Holy Men,
I have thread on a string of letters,
{R 1092} in order that they may be seen by people endowed with the eye of Wisdom.
By virtue of this, may all living beings drink the nectar of the Doctrine of the Jina!
May the eternal deeds of the Jewel of the All-Knowing, the Treasury of all Merits, enter into them!
As an image of the Buddha, even if made of stone, wood or clay, ought to be an object of devotion,
Even so, the Doctrine, which had become a mere shadow, because of the Iron Age, ought to be worshipped by all living beings.
May this cause the Precious Doctrine of the Jina to spread by every means, in all directions, and may it live long!
This History of the spread of the Doctrine and that of the preachers in Tibet was compiled by the monk gzhon nu dpal, the preacher, in the year Earth Male Dog (sa pho khyi 1478 A.D.), the 850th year since the birth of the religious king srong btsan sgam po in the (monastery) of chos rdzong, the Abode of Happiness, where natural amṛta flows near to the grove of dpal kun tu bzang op.
Salutation to the Three Jewels!
Of those things which spring from a cause
the cause has been told by the Tathāgata;
And their suppression likewise
the great śramaṇa has revealed.
(Ye dharmā hetuprabhavā hetun teṣān Tathāgato hy avadat/
teṣān͂͂ca yo nirodho evaṃvādī mahāśramaṇaḥ//
Śubhaṃ astu sarvajagataṃ)
{R 1093}May the Whole World be happy!
Oṃ svasti.
15.5b Kundeling Monastery print colophon (Chandra 970; Chengdu 1271; Roerich 1093).
This treasury of good words (containing) the history of the great systems of the impartial Doctrine in Āryāvarta and Tibet, the origin of the Doctrine and that of men who followed it, was compiled by the excellent scholar 'gos lo gzhon nu dpal. This necklace of all wise fortunate ones, is called the "BLUE ANNALS" (Deb ther sngon po).
The printing blocks are nowadays kept at the (monastery) of dga' ldan brtan blugs chos 'khor, better known by the name of dbus gtsang kun bde gling, (situated) in the vicinity of the Government seat to Lha sa.
May the deeds beneficial to living beings increase till the end of the World.
May the inexhaustible virtue, encompassing a wide area, increase perpetually according to the wishes (of living beings).
The ancient block-print edition of the History, called the "BLUE ANNALS", was preserved at yangs pa can. At the time of the Tibetan-Nepalese War, some of the printing blocks having been lost, we have prepared new ones to replace them. We also replaced by new ones those which had become unclear, in the interest of living beings, and deposited the printing. blocks at the (monastery) of dbus gtsang kun bde gling. This colophon and the words of the solemn wish (praṇidhi) were composed by rta tshag pa ye shes blo bzang bstan pa'i mgon po.
The total of pages (in this volume) - 485.