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Blue Annals: Part 4 (Chapters 1 & 2 - Lamdre)

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PART 4 (NGA): New Traditions of Secret Mantra, including the Followers of the Path and the Fruit [3 CHAPTERS]
From the Blue Annals, chapter on New Traditions of Secret Mantra, including the Followers of the Path and the Fruit.
deb ther sngon po las / gsang sngags gsar ma / lam ?bras rjes 'brang dang bcas pa'i skabs. 16 folios. Chandra 183 214; Chengdu 255 296; Roerich 204 240.Lukhang, Lhasa

4.1 The beginning of the new translations (gsar ma'i 'gyur mgo'i skabs. Chandra 184; Chengdu 255; Roerich 204).
Notwithstanding the fact that some of the Tantric Precepts were to be found in dbus, gtsang and mnga' ris, Tantric practices became defiled. Meditation on the Ultimate Reality was abandoned, and many coarse practices made their appearance, such as sexual practices, ritual killing (sbyor sgrol), the gtad ser, and others. (This situation) was noticed by the kings of mnga' ris, and though they did not voice their objection openly, they sent invitations to numerous learned paṇḍitas (in India), who were able to remove these obstacles by placing living beings on the Path of Purity. Said Lord Atīśa: "The Initiation into the gsang dbang rite and the shes rab (Prajnā) was not to be taken up by one of chaste practice, since this was strictly prohibited in the great Tantra of the Ādi Buddha." (This passage) also prohibited indirectly the coarse practices of lay Tantrics.

Though it is generally said that Lord Smṛti had inaugurated the translation of the "New" Tantras, he did not translate them in dbus and gtsang. At a later date, he prepared in Khams numerous translations of the Manjuśrināma sangīti, according to the method of the Saint Līlāvajra (sgeg pa rdo rje), the Śrīcatuḥpīṭha-mahāyoginītantrarāja-nāma, the Cycle of the Guhyasamāja (gsang 'dus) and other texts. Thus it seems that these (translations) {R 205} were earlier than the translations of Tantric texts made by the great lo tsā ba rin chen zhang po, for it is said that when 'brom ston pa attended on jo bo se btsun, he learnt the work of a translator from Smṛti. Soon after that, when 'brom came to mnga' ris, the great lo tsā ba reached the age of 85. The great lo tsā ba had translated for the most part the "Father" Class (pha rgyud) of the Anuttara-yoga-tantra, including the Tattvasamgraha, the Guhyasamāja and other texts. The Tantras belonging to the Yoginī class such as the Saṃvara, Hevajra and others were translated by bla chen 'brog mi, when the great lo tsā ba was nearing his fiftieth year. Then also the Yoginī Tantras became widely propagated. The paragraph on the beginning of the translations of the "New" Tantras.

4.2 The spread of explanations of Yoginī Tantras, and the story of the increase of instructions on the Path and its Results during the life of the Sakyapa father and son (rnal 'byor ma'i rgyud kyi bshad pa'i dar so dang / lam 'bras bu dang bcas pa'i gdams pa sa skya pa yab sras kyi ring la 'ji ltar 'phel ba'i gtam gyi skabs. Chandra 184; Chengdu 256; Roerich 205).

Thus during the spread of the Doctrine by lo ston rdorje dbang phyug, who was the, first (of the period) of the later spread of the Doctrine, the three brothers dpal lde, 'od lde and skyid lde, sons of khri bkra shis brtsegs pa dpal, who ruled in the region of ru lag and was a son of king dpal 'khor btsan, requested lo ston to propagate the Doctrine (ordination) by sending an upādhyāya and ācārya to their place. (Accordingly) the upādhyāya Śākya (%) gzhon nu, and the ācārya se ye shes brtson 'grus were sent.
In the time of the establishment of monastic communities, when the lo tsā ba rin chen bzang po was nearing the age of fifty, these two, upādhyāya and ācārya, having discussed (the matter), presented a large quantity of gold to 'brog mi and stag lo gzhon nu brtson 'grus, and sent them to India. The two, while in Tibet, had studied a little the bi wa rta (vivarta) script (Vartula), and spent one year in Nepāl, and learnt well the (Sanskrit) language from the Nepālese paṇḍita Sāntibhadra, a disciple of Śānti-pa, as well as heard (from him) several Vajrayāna texts. Then following his advice they proceeded to interview Śānti-pa, one {R 206} of the six gate-keeper paṇḍitas (of Vikramaśila): at the eastern (gate) Śānti-pa; at the southern gate ngag gi dbang phyug grags pa (Vagīśvarakīrti); at the western gate shes rab 'byung gnas blo gros (Prajnākaramati); at the northern gate nā ro pang chen; in the centre rin chen rdo rje (Ratnavajra), and Jnanaśri. They also had the occasion of studying with the other (paṇḍitas).

When they were about to start for India, the upādhyāya and the ācārya instructed them: "Listen to the (exposition) of the Vinaya for, it is the Basis of the Doctrine. Listen to the Prajnāpāramitā, for it is the Essence of the Doctrine. Listen to the Vajrayāna, for it is the Spirit of the Doctrine." They followed these instructions.

'brog mi first heard the exposition of the, Vinaya from Śānti-pa. After that he heard the Prajnāpāramitā and many texts of the Vajrayāna, and became very learned. 'brog mi spent eight years at the residence of Śānti-pa, and after that journeyed to Eastern India, where he saw a monk being fed by a tree goddess with a spectre in hand. He was filled with wonder and paid great reverence to this monk, and begged him to accept him (as disciple). The monk's name was Prajnā-Indraruci, in Tibetan he was called shes rab kyi dbang po gsal ba. Further, Ḍombhi- Heruka, a disciple of Birwapa (Virūpa). His disciple Durjaya-candra (mi thub zla ba), whose disciple was Prajnā-Indraruci. He bestowed on 'brog mi the Initiation into the Vajrayāna, the exposition of the Tantra and Tantric precepts. He also bestowed on him the doctrine of the "Path and Fruit" (lam 'bras) without the basic text (rtsa ba med pa'i lam 'bras). In contrast to the Vajrayanā doctrine of Śānti-pa, he felt great certainty in this doctrine, and spent there three years.

Later, for 13 years he resided in India and Nepāl, and then returned to Tibet. The upādhyāya and the acārya, accompanied, by a crowd of monks, went out a long way to meet him. As stated above, 'brog mi had mastered many {R 207} doctrines and became learned, and this pleased the upādhyāya and ācārya. 'brog mi then translated three Tantras, including the brtag gnyis and many Vajrayānic texts. He also revised the translation of the Abhisamayālaṃkārakārikāvṛtti-śuddha-mati-nāma, chiefly propagated the Tantric doctrines and expounded numerous texts, residing at myu gu lung and lha rtse'i brag (the Rock of lha rtse). For a short while he was invited by the nomads of gnam thang dkar po (gtsang), and while staying there he received a letter from Gayadhara telling him of the coming of a paṇḍita and advising him to come to meet the latter.
He went to meet the paṇḍita at gung thang, (mang yul(%)), and joined his retinue. On his way there the paṇḍita preached the Doctrine to him. He invited Gayadhara to myu gu lung and they decided to stay there for five years, and Gayadhara to bestow (on him) the complete "Precious Word" (gsung ngag rin po che). The paṇḍita to receive also gifts amounting to 500 golden srangs. In three years the paṇḍita completed his teaching. When the paṇḍita said that he was going, he was requested to stay on, as agreed, and he stayed (there) for five years. When the 500 golden srangs were paid up, he became very pleased and undertook not to teach the "Word" (lam 'bras) to other Tibetans. Then the paṇḍita returned to India. At a later time, the paṇḍita was again invited by 'gos via gro mo. When the paṇḍita arrived, they met again. Then again he returned (to India). At last gyi jo invited the paṇḍita to mnga' ris. Then, when he was proceeding to gtsang, 'brog mi having passed away, the paṇḍita did not meet him. The paṇḍita (Gayadhara) proceeded to kha rag into the presence of two ascetics se and rog. There he passed away.

'brog mi bestowed many Tantras and {R 208} precepts including those of bsam mi khyab and others, exposing the lam 'bras doctrine. He bestowed the complete "Word" (gsung ngag) on lha btsun ka li, 'brom do pa ston chung and se ston kun rig. They are not to be found with other (teachers). lha btsun did not keep disciples. do pa ston chung proceeded from myu gu lung to la stod, and soon afterwards died there, and thus did not propagate his teaching. Though 'brog mi did not teach the complete "Word" he preached some parts of it to the three "Males" (pha): 'dgyer sgom se po, gshen sgom ros po and dbus pa grong po che, and to four female followers: stod mo rdo rje 'tsho, bzang mo dkon ne, shab mo lcam cig and 'chad mo nam mkha'. These seven attained spiritual realization. The five who had completed the teaching of the basic texts: gyi ljang, the "White Headed" (dbu dkar ba) of lha rtse, shab kyi brag rtse so nag pa, dbang ston dkon mchog rgyal po of 'phran 'og, 'khon dkon mchog rgyal po of sa skya, and gsal ba'i snying po of mnga' ris. This is the number of 'brog mi's disciples.

He also preached the Doctrine to numerous pravrajikas and laymen. 'gos lo tsā ba and mar pa lo tsā ba have also been his disciples. mar pa used to say at the shri myu gu lung monastery: "I had learnt the alphabet and pronunciation (of Sanskrit) from the Translator ('brog mi). I think his grace was not small, but great!" But mar pa found 'brog mi insisting on a great many presents, even for short precepts, and so a desire to visit India was born in mar pa, and he proceeded there. 'gos thinking also that the Teacher was too strict in matters of religion, thought of going himself to interview paṇḍitas, and so journeyed (to India) from the monastic college (myu gu lung). In this manner 'brog mi obtained the faculty of hearing numerous secret precepts and (developed) steadfastness in both the utpannakrama (%) and sampānnakrama (%) degrees.

Though he had striven to obtain Enlightenment before giving up his physical body, he assumed a cross-legged {R 209} position in the Sky by the force of his prāngāyāma (%) and plunged into death as his Path of Salvation. When his sons were performing the funeral rite (and burnt his body), the auspicious signs (of his having attained Enlightenment in his physical body) did not manifest themselves. He attained the true realization of the Mahāmudrā (which he did not attain at the time of his death, as hoped for by him) in the "Intermediate" State (antarabhava bar do) (%).
In short, according to the above given account, the great translator rin chen bzang po had made numerous translations, including those of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajnāpāramitā (brgyad stong pa), the nyi khri' snang ba, the Abhisamayālaṃkāra ālokā, and other texts, and taught them. The spread of the profound Prajnapāramitā (doctrine) is also due to him. In the domain of the Tantra piṭaka of the Vajrayāna, he possessed both the knowledge, and the great method of spiritual attainment through (yogic) practice. He also established numerous recommendations on the preaching of the Tantras of both the "Father" and "Mother" classes.
He especially spread the Doctrine by propagating the great commentaries, rites and practices of the Yoga Tantra. As stated above the great Teacher (bla chen) 'brog mi propagated the doctrine of study and meditation, and chiefly that of the "Mother" class of the Tantras. Lord 'gos preached chiefly the Samāja according to the method of Nāgārjuna. Following his teaching, his numerous learned disciples increased in numbers (and followed after him) in an uninterrupted succession.

mar pa held in high esteem the Tantric precepts of Nāropā and those of Maitrī. He also taught the (Guhya) samāja, the Śrī Buddhakapāla nāma Yoginītantrarāja, the Hevajra Tantrarāja, the ārya-Dākiṇīvajrapanjara-mahātantrarājakalpa nāma, the Śrī Mahāmāyā tantrarāja nāma {R 210} and the Śrīcatuḥpīṭha-mahayoginītantrarāja-nāma. Because of this, his disciples became learned men, attained spiritual realization and the mountain country of Tibet became filled with (his) disciples, and in this manner he became the Master of the Tantric Doctrine.

The great teacher 'brog mi bestowed the complete "Word" (i.e. the lam 'bras doctrine) on se, and intimated that his precepts would spread through za ma, brother and sister. In due course both brother and sister obtained from se the "Word" (lam 'bras) practised it and were of great benefit to others. Their story will be told later.

Though the great teacher (bla chen, i.e. 'brog mi) had many disciples, the teachers of the Holy sa skya are the great masters of both the basic texts and secret precepts. Their Lineage: From whom and whence they originated: In those times when gods and demons were numerous in Tibet, gya' spang skyes gcig of yar klungs shar and si li ma having married, a bloodless demon had intercourse with her. While the two were quarrelling, a divine son was born to her, who became known as jobo 'khon par skyes (the "Lord born amidst quarrels") (%). From ma sangs downwards the Lineage of those who had originated from 'khon followed in regular succession. 'khon dpal po che who was appointed confidential minister (nang blon) to king khri srong lde btsan, had four sons: khri mdzes lha legs, tshe la dbang phyug, 'khon klu'i dbang po bsrung ba and tshe 'dzin. The third is the sixth of the "Seven Tested Men" (sad mi).

The descendants of rdo rje rin po che, the fourth son, are as follows: shes rab yon tan, yon tan 'byung gnas, tshul khrims rgyal po, rdo rje gtsug tor, dge skyabs, dge mthong, bal po and sākya blo gros. They all were familiar with the Old" Tantra texts.

He had two sons: the eldest shes rab tshul khrims became a monk; the youngest dkon mchog rgyal po, who was born in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho khyi 1034 A.D.), founded at the age of 40 in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glang 1073 A.D.) the monastery of sa skya {R 211}. At the age of 69 in the year Water-Male-Horse (chu pho rta?1102 A.D.) he passed away. His son sa chen kun dga' snying po was born in the year (%) Water-Male-Ape (chu pho spre'u 1092 A.D.), when his father was 59. His father died when he was eleven. In that year ba ri lo tsā ba, aged 63, was appointed to the chair (at sa skya). He occupied the chair from the age of 20 to 67, (%) for 48 years, and died in the year Earth-Male-Tiger (sa pho stag 1158 A.D.).

sa chen had four sons: kun dga' 'bar went to India, was a learned man, and died in India at the age of 22. (His) second (son) the ācārya bsod nams rtse mo was born in the year Water- Male-Dog (chu pho khyi 142 A.D.), when his father was 51. He died at the age of 41 in the year Water-Male-Tiger (chu pho stag 1182 A.D.). The third (son) the Venerable grags pa rgyal mtshan was born in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1147 A.D.), when his father was 56. In his 26th year, he occupied the chair, beginning from the Water-Dragon year (chu 'brug 1172 A.D.). He died at the age of 70 in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me mo byi ba 1216 A.D.).

The fourth (son) dpal chen 'od po was born in the year Iron-Male-Horse (lcags pho rta 1150 A.D.), when his father was 59. He died at the age of 54 in the year Water-Female-Hog (chu mo phag 1203 A.D.).

This latter had two sons: the eldest was sa skya pang chen (kun dga' rgyal mtshan) who was born in the year Water-Male-Tiger (chu pho stag 1182 A.D.), when his father was 33. At the age of 63 in the year Wood-Male-Dragon (shing pho 'brug 1244 A.D.) he visited the Emperor (i.e. Godan in kan su(%)). He died at the age of 70 in the year Iron-Female-Hog (lchags mo phag 1251 A.D.).

(His) youngest son was zangs tsha bsod nams rgyal mtshan who was born in the year Wood-Male-Dragon ('sin pho 'brug 1184 A.D.), when his father was 35. He died at the age of 56 in the year Earth-Female-Hog(sa mo phag 1239 A.D.). His son the bla ma 'phags pa was born in the year Wood-Female-Sheep (sin mo lug 1235 A.D.), when his father was 52. {R 212}

At the age of ten, he proceeded to the North in the retinue of chos rje ba (sa skya paṇḍita). En route, at zul phu he took up the noviciate in the presence of na bza' 'phren gsol. At the age of 18, in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glah 1253 A.D.) he became the Court Chaplain (bla mchod) of Prince se chen (Secen, Qubilai (%)). At the age of 21, in the year Wood-Female-Hare year (śin mo yos 1255 A.D.) he took up the final monastic ordination. At the age of 26 in the year Iron-Male-Ape (lcags pho spre'u 1260 A.D.), when se chen had ascended the imperial throne, be became Imperial Preceptor. At the age of 31, in the year Wood-Female-Ox (shing mo glang 1265 A.D.) he returned to Tibet. Then again, in the year Earth-Female-Serpent (sa mo sbrul 1268 A.D.) he proceeded to the Imperial Court, and spent there seven years. Then again, at the age of 42, in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me mo byi ba 1276 A.D.), he returned to his monastery (sa skya). In the year Fire-Female-Ox (me mo glang 1277 A.D.) he held a religious assembly at chu mig. At the age of 49, in the year Iron-Male-Dragon (lcags pho 'brug 1280 A.D.) he passed away.

His younger brother pḥyag na was born in the year Earth-Female-Hog (sa mo phag1239 A.D.) when his father was 56. At the age of six, he proceeded to the North in the retinue of cho rje ba (sa skya paṇḍita). At the age of 29, in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1267 A.D.) he died. Again, the ācārya rin chen rgyal mtshan was born in the year Earth-Male-Dog (sa pho khyi 1238 A.D.) when his father zangs tsha was 55.

At the age of 42 in the year Earth-Female-Hare (sa tno yos1279 A.D.) he died. Further, the ācārya ye shes 'byung gnas and the ācārya rin chen rgyal mtshan were of one age. He (ye shes 'byung gnas) died at the age of 37 in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho kyi 1274 A.D.) at ljang yul.

The son of Phyag-na-Dharmapālarakṣita (%) was born in the year Earth-Male-Dragon (sa pho 'brug 1268 A.D.) ten months after Phyag-na's death. At the age of 20, in the year Fire-Female-Hog (me mo phag 1287 A.D.) {R 213} he died. He occupied the chair (of sa skya) for seven years, from the year Iron-Serpent (lcags sbrul 1281 A.D.) till the year Fire-Female-Hog (me mo phag 1287 A.D.).

The son of the bla ma ye shes 'byung gnas, the Mahātman bzang po dpal was born in the year Water-Male-Dog (chu pho khyi 1262 A.D.), when his father was 25. At 45, he occupied the chair for 19 years, beginning with the year Fire-Male-Horse (me pho rta 1306 A.D.). He died at the age of 61 in the year Water-Male-Dog (chu pho khyi 1322 A.D.).
This bla ma had 12 sons.

The first, the ācārya bsod nams bzang po was born at the Imperial Court (in Peking). He died in amdo (mdo khams) en route to Tibet.

The second (son) the bla ma kun dga' blo gros was born in the year Earth-Female-Hog (sa mo phag 1299 A.D.) when his father was 38. At the age of 29, in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1327 A.D.) he died.

The third (son) the great Venerable scholar (mkhas btsun chen po) nam mkha' legs pa'i blo gros rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po (%) was born in the year Wood-Female-Serpent (shin mo sbrul 1305 A.D.) when his father was 44. At 21 in the year Wood-Female-Ox (shing mo glanh 1325 A.D.) he occupied the chair (of sa skya) for 19 years, till the year Water-Female-Sheep (chu mo lug 1343 A.D.). He passed away in the same Water-Female-Sheep year, aged 39.

He had two younger brothers: The first died in childhood. The second, ācārya nam mkha rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po was born in the year Wood-Male-Mouse (shing pho byi ba 1324 A.D.) after the death of his father. At the age of 20, he proceeded to the Imperial Court. The bla ma kun dga' legs pa'i 'byung nas also proceeded to the Imperial Court.
His younger brother ti shri kun dga' rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po was born in the year Iron-Male-Dog (Icags pho khyi 1310 A.D.). He died at the age of 49 in the year Earth-Male-Dog (sa pho khyi 1358 A.D.).

Three sons were born to the Venerable Lady (btsun mo) red mda' ma. The eldest died in childhood. The youngest kun dga' legs pa'i rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po {R 214} was born in the year Earth-Male-Ape (sa pho spre'u 1308 A.D.) when his father was 47. At 29 in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me pho byi ba 1336 A.D.) he died at srad.

Of the three sons born to the Lady zha lu ma ma gcig gzhon nu 'bum, the eldest kun dga' nyi ma'i rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po received the title of ta'i dben gu shrī (
The second son?the bla ma don yod rgyal mtshan was born in the year Iron-Male-Dog (lcags pho khyi 1310 A.D.), when his father was 49. He died at the age of 35 in the year Wood-Male-Ape (sin pho spre'u 1344 A.D).

The yougest son the bla ma dam pa bdod nams rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po was, born in the year Water-Male-Mouse (chu pho byi ba 1312 A.D.) at zha lu khang gsar (%). He died at the age of 64 in the year Wood-Female-Hare (shing mo yos 1375 A.D.).

The son of dbang (
ti shri (ti shih) kun dga' rgyal mtshan had two sons, before he took up ordination. The son of ma gcig byang pa mo ta'i dben (T'ai Yan) chos kyi rgyal mtshan was born in the year Water-Male-Ape (chu pho spre'u 1332 A.D.).

The son of the sister of the bla ma kun spangs pa, Ta'i dben (T'ai Yan) blo gros rgyal mtshan was also born in the year Water-Male-Ape (chu pho spre'u 1332 A.D.).

The eldest son of the four sons and daughters of dbang kun dga' legs pa, ti shri' (ti shih) bsob nams blo gros was (also) born in the year Water-Male-Ape (chu pho spre'u 1332 A.D.). He visited the Imperial Court, and died at me tog ra ba in the year Water-Tiger (chu stag 1362 A.D.). His youngest brother died in childhood.

The younger brother dbang grags pa rgyal mtshan was born in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me pho byi ba 1336 A.D.). At the age of 44 (41?) he died at stag tshan in the year Fire-Dragon (me 'brug 1376 A.D.).

bla ma kun rin, {R 215} son of the bla ma mkhas btsun pa and chos rje kun bkras pa, son of the bla ma chos kyi rgyal mtshan, were born in the year Earth-Female-Ox (sa mo glang 1349 A.D.). At 64, in the year Water-Male-Dragon (chu pho 'brug 1412 A. D.) he proceeded to the Imperial Court, and remained there for two years. The Ta'i Ming Emperor bestowed on him the title of theg chen chos kyi rgyal po (this is a translation of the Chinese Ta-ch'ng Fa-wang).

khon dkon mchog rgyal po, who belonged to this Line, held in high esteem the "New" Tantras. From bla chen ('brog mi) he acquired chiefly an understanding of the teaching of gur (%) and brtag (%). bla then also bestowed the complete precepts (of the "Path and Fruit Doctrine/lam 'bras/) on se ston kun rig. se ston obtained the exposition of the Tantras from gsal ba'i snying po of mnga' ris a direct disciple of bla chen. He also studied under khon dkon mchog rgyal po. He attained supreme meditation, and lived till the age of 88 (%). According to a prophecy by his teacher, he bestowed most of his secret precepts on zha ma and (her) brother.
At the age of 87, he met sa chen (kun dga' snying po), who was 25, and was very pleased. He (se ston) said to sa chen: "Come here! I shall bestow the secret precepts on you!". Some obstacles in his way prevented him from listening to the exposition of secret precepts. se also died soon.
When later sa chen, mentally craving for secret precepts, inquired as to who possessed secret precepts, he was told that "dgon pa and his brother held the precepts of se ston, but that the younger brother had died". He therefore, went to interview the elder brother. Though omens were contradictory, zhang dgon pa was glad to bestow on him the complete precepts of the doctrine of the "Path and Fruit" (lam 'bras). From then on, the spiritual descendants of sa skya became the masters of both the basic text and secret precepts (of this doctrine).

From the birth of khon dkon mchog rgyal po in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho khyi 1034 A.D.) {R 216} to the death of the sa skya pang chen in the year Iron-Female-Hog (lcags mo phag 1251 A.D.) 218 years have passed. During that period the shower of both Tantras and Sūtras having fallen, the land of Tibet was well nourished by it. After the grant by the Emperor se chen (Secen) of the three provinces of Tibet as reward for the Initiation to the dbon po 'phags pa rin po che, the bla ma became the spiritual head (of the country), whereas officials (dpon chen) appointed in turn, conducted the secular affairs (of the country).

The first among the Regents (dpon chen la snga ba) shā kya (%) bzang po was given a seal of office to rule over dbus and gtsang by command of se chen. He built the great khang gsar (at sa skya) and also erected the outer and inner walls of the Great Temple (lha khan zhen mo) at sa skya. Having collected timber (required for the building), he passed away before completing the roof (of the temple). Then kun dga' bzang po, who had acted as confidential agent (nang gnyer), took over the Regency. He built the palace (bla brang) of rin chen sgang, and also erected a temple, and a wall. kun dga' bzang po having retired from the Regency, the Regents zang btsun, phyug po sgang dkar ba and byang rin were appointed in turn under advice from the bla ma. The bla ma disliked kun dga' bzang po, and in the year following the death of the bla ma he was killed by Mongol troops under orders of se chen (Secen).

During the time of byang rin, se chen (Secen) showed interest (in the administration of Tibet) and bestowed on him a crystal seal (shel dam) and the title of magistrate (mi dpon) of zo 'on si.

The Regent kun gzhon.
The Regent gzhon dbang, in whose time the great reorganization took place, and the laws of dbus and gtsang were codified.

Then the Regent byang rdor.
The Regent ag len. The latter erected the outer wall of sa skya {R 217}, and the wall of dpon po ri. He also built khang ?gsar gling (%). During the time of these three (regents), war against the 'bri khung pas was waged. In the time of ag len, the Great Revolt known, as 'bri khung gling log took place, which was known as the "Rebellion of 'bri khung". This revolt took place in the year Iron-Male-Tiger (lcags pho stag 1290 A.D.), the year of bu ston rin po che's birth. Again gzhon dbang was appointed (%). Then legs pa dpal, seng ge dpal 'ad zer seng ge who held the seal of zwan ching dben, the Regent kun dga' rin chen don yod dpal, yong btsun, again 'od zet seng ge, the Regent rgyal ba bzang po, dbang brtson, nam mkha', brtan pa, grags pa rgyal mtshan, dpal 'bum, blo chen, and grags dbang.

The Great Regent dban brtson led on several occasions the troops of the thirteen districts against yar klungs, but failed to defeat ta'i si tu byang chub rgyal' mtshan, who had occupied most of the province of dbus.

Afterwards in the year of the Horse (rta to 1354 A.D.) the Regent rgyal ba bzang po was thrown into prison by lha khang bla brang pa, but si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan intintidated the latter with a large force, and liberated the Regent from prison. He then became toaster of most of the territory of gtsang also. After this, the governors of dbus and gtsang handed over the administration of the districts of dbus, and gtsang to si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan, and affixed their respective seals. On his death, they transferred the seal to gu shri chen mo and authorized him to govern. In all, the sa skya pas have been "Masters of the World" for 75 years. In particular: by (%) bzhi thog twenty five years; by (%) shar ba?25 by (%) khang gsar chen mo ba?25.

After 75 years {R 218} si tu byang chub rgyal mtshan from the year Earth-Female-Ox (sa mo glang?1349 A.D.) acted as "Lord of the Earth" (sa'i dbag po or "Lord of Sa /Skya/"). In the 25th year, a Water-Female-Ox year (chu mo glan 1393 A.D.), gu shrī ba (%) assembled the religious council of yar klungs. si tu having died in this very year, it is said that even phag mo gru pa succumbed to an accident in his 25th year.

During the life time of the former hierarchs of sa skya many paṇḍitas arrived (in Tibet), such as the paṇḍita of u rgyan shes rab gsang ba (Praj?āgupta) and later the paṇḍita Jayasena, and others. Later during the life time of 'phags pa rin po che there appeared many very learned translators, including shong ston, his brother, and others. The exposition of the Pramāṇavārtika spread throughout all the monastic establishments of dbus and gtsang. It was due to the bla ma cho rje ba (sa skya pang chen).

'phags pa rin po che being broad minded, a Mongol Imperial Edict was promulgated which allowed Tibetan believers to follow their own respective religious doctrines. Most of the Tripiṭakadharas appear to have been satisfied with earthly goods.

The chapter on the spread of the teaching of the Tantras belonging to the "Mother" (ma) class of the Anuttara-yoga Tantra, and on the spread of the doctrine of the "Path and Fruit" (lam 'bras) in the life time of the sa skya pas (father and sons).