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Blue Annals: Part 10 (Kalachakra)

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I shall (now) relate the story of the origin of the Śrī Kālacakra-Tantra (dpal dus

kyi 'khor lo'i rgyud) and its pre?cepts.

Now the general account of the propagation of the Mahāyāna Guhyamantra (theg pa

chen po gsang sngags) in Jambudvīpa: In the beginning, in the East, king

Pradyota?candra (rab gsal zla ba) and others obtained the Yoga-Tantras, such as

the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha and others, and preached them.

Then the ācārya Nāgārjuna and his disciples obtained the Yoga-Tantras, including

the Guhyasamāja and others, and preached them. They spread from the South.
After that from the West Śrī Kam?bala (dpal la ba pa) and others discovered the

Yoginī-Tantras (rnal 'byor ma'i rgyud) in the country of Oḍḍīyāna. They also

spread towards Madhyadeśa.

After that, there appeared from the realm of Śambhala commentaries (on the

Kālacakra-Tantra) composed by Bodhisattvas, such as the Śrī Kālacakra (%buddhist

diety?) and others. They spread towards Madhyadeśa.

In the Vimalaprabhā it is said:
Here the fixing of chronological calculations (byed pa la nges pa): In 600 years

from the time of the Tathāgata-the period of Ma?juśrī (?jam dpal); in 800 years

from that time- the era of the Mlecchas; by lower?ing the era of the Mlecchas by

182 years, (one obtains) the {R 754} time of rigs ldan rgyal dka', during which

Kulika Durjaya introduced the "lesser" chronology (mentioned in the Kālacakra).

This date should be regarded as a correct calculation based on the era of the


"The past Prabhāva year, etc. " mean the cycles of sixty years of which the first

was the Prabhāva (rab byung) year (me yos, Fire-Hare year, 1027 A.D.) and which

(are designated) as ?Prabhāva and others."

Each period of sixty years, which preceded the present years (were called) the

"past Prabhāva." Basing themselves on the above quotation, most of the later

scholars maintained that the time of the appearance of the Kālacakra in Madhyadeśa

corresponded to the beginning of the first cycle (rab byung) of the "past" years

('das lo). But it seems to me that the Kālacakra had appeared in Āryadeśa long

before that time, for in the Sahajasaṃvara?sādhana composed by the mahāsiddha

(Vajra)ghaṇṭapāda is found the second śloka of the introductory (1a) verse of the

Vimalaprabhā: "(He) was impressed by the Bhagavatī Praj?ā, which though formless,

yet has a form." (rnam par bcas kyang rnam med bcom ldan 'das shes ?rab ma ste de

yis 'khyud).

Also because after Ghaṇṭapāda (came) rus sbal zhabs. He (transmitted it) to dza

lan dha ri pa; the latter to Kṛṣṇapāda (nag po pa); the latter to Bhadrapāda

(bzang po zhabs); the latter to Vijayapāda (rNam rgyal iabs); the latter to

Tilli-pa; the latter to Nā-ro-pa. Thus from Ghaṇṭa(pāda) till Nā-ro-pa there have

been eight teachers in the Line. Also
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because Nā-ro-pa and Kālacakrapāda, father and son, were contemporaries.
Further, because it is said in the gshin rje gshed kyi 'khor lo'i gsal byed,

composed by Śrī Virūpa, that he had writ?ten the text basing himself on the

Also because, when relating the story of tsi lu pa's search for the Kālacakra, it

was said that the ācārya had read (it) in the vihāra of Ratnagiri (rin chen ri bo)

which had been left un?damaged by the Turuṣkas, and was of the opinion that, in

general, for the (attainment) of Enlightenment the Mahāyāna Guhyamantra (gsang

sngags) was necessary, and that the text had to be studied with the help of the

commentary by the Bodhisattvas. Accordingly he proceeded in search of the

Kālacakra. Thus it has to be admitted that the system of Kālacakra seems to have

reached Āryadeśa at an early date, and that (the system) became known to many

people in the time of Kālacakrapāda, father and son.

The statement by glan bang so ba and others that the first translation (of the

Kālacakra) into Tibetan was that of gyi jo, seems too be correct, because the

coming of the paṇḍita Somanātha (zla ba mgon po) took place in the later life of

gra pa mngon shes, who said that in his youth he had heard the Kālacakra from

(his) uncle.

TRANMISSION IN TIBET : rwa lo and ?bro?s transmissions
bu (ston) and dol (pa pa) were the two great ex?pounders of the Kālacakra in the

Land of Snows. These two first obtained it from the spiritual descendants of rwa

lo (tsā ba), but later they studied it according to the tradition of 'bro lo tsā

ba. Thus rwa and 'bro have been the chief (expounders of the Kālacakra in Tibet).
In connection with this, the followers of the tradi?tion of 'bro used to say that:

Kālacakrapāda, the Eldest (dus zhabs chen po) obtained it from Kulika (rigs Idan).

Then Kālacakrapāda, the Junior (dus zhabs pa chung ngu), Somanātha (zla ba mgon

po), sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs, sgro ston gnam la brtsegs, yu mo, his son

Dharmeśvara, the scholar nam mkha' 'od, se chen nam mkha'
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rgyal mtshan, the Dharmasvāmin 'jam dbyangs gsar ma, kun? mkhyen chos sku 'od zer,

kun spangs thugs rje brtson 'grus, byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, kun mkhyen yon tan

rgya mtsho, and the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po.
The followers of the rwa lo tradition state as follows: Kulika (rigs Idan), tsi lu

pa (Celuka), Piṇḍopa, Kālacakrapāda, the Eldest (dus ?zhabs che ba),

Kālacakrapāda, the Junior (chung ba), Ma?jukīrti, the Nepālese Samantaśrī, rwa

chos rab, rwa ye shes seng ge, rwa 'bum seng, the Venerable rje btsun rgwa lo,

rong pa shes ?rab seng ge, and the bla ma rdo rje rgyal mtshan. The latter taught

(the system) to bu ston rin po che.

Further, skyi ston 'jam dbyangs obtained it from rong pa shes rab seng ge, kun

mkh?yen chen po obtained it from him. bu (ston) and dol pa pa, the two, obtained

the system according to the tradition of rwa lo tsā ba. Later they, obtained many

precepts according to the tradition of 'bro lo tsā ba and others.

The accounts about the teacher in whose time the Kālacakra had been obtained from

Kulika (rigs ldan) in Āryadeśa, and the (first) disciples on whom it was bestowed,

are at variance. According to the rgyud la 'jug pa'i man ngag rin po che za ma tog

kha 'byed pa by glan bang so ba chos kyi dbang phyug, a disciple of tre po mgon

po: By the words handed down from the siddha and his followers it is meant that it

had continued in a regular succession.

Now the Lineage: king pad ma dkar po, a manifestation of the Bodhisattva

Avalokiteśvara, who was indicated in the last śloka of the prophecy (given by

Buddha about the kings of Śambhala), taught (the system) to the ācārya


This ācārya belonged to the kṣatriya caste of Madhyadeśa in (2b) India, and was

born after his royal parents had performed the rite ensuring the birth of a noble

son (kulaputra). He was learned in the five branches of knowledge, and was known

to be a manifestation of Ārya Ma?juśrī. He was blessed by the Venerable Tārā,

whose face he saw clearly. After he had acquired all the "lower perfections," the

{R 757}
One once told him: In the Northern Śambhala there exist many Tantras and

commentaries taught and prophesied by the Buddha. Go in search of them and listen

to them! He then thought of going there.

In the opinion of some scholars he had joined a caravan of merchants, and

proceeded there. Some said that he was guided there by a phantom monk. Again some

said that the Venerable Tārā herself helped him. Again some said that when he

decided to proceed to Śambhala, and was preparing (for the journey), he visited

Śambhala in his vision, and obtained the doctrines from Ārya Avalokiteśvara

himself (rigs ldan pad ma dkar po). This last statement should be accepted.
When he was residing in Madhyadeśa, tsi lu pa preached the system to five

paṇḍitas: Piṇḍo ācārya, 'dul ba 'byung gnas blo gros, thar pa 'byung gnas? sbas

pa, seng ge rgyal mtshan, and mtha' yas rnam par rgyal ba. When they had mastered

it, he journeyed to Puṣpahari, and stayed there preaching the system to na ro

pan? chen and others.
Though all of his disciples were endowed with excellent qualities, one named Piṇḍo

ācārya especially distinguished himself. This was due to the fact that in a former

existence he had been a shortwitted monk, and had performed a sādhana in order to

improve his intellect.

After receiving a prophecy by a deva in his dream, he made out of coral an image

of Kurukullā and inserted it into the mouth of a dead woman. He sat cross-legged

on the corpse and meditated for seven days. Then (the dead woman) looked up at him

and uttered: What do you want? At that time if he would have said that he wished

to get by heart whatever had been seen by him, he would have obtained it. But

being disappointed with his intelligence, he asked: I wish to be able to commit to

memory all that which has been written by me. And so ?t happened, and he became

known as paṇḍita Piṇḍo ācārya. He became known in Madhyadeśa
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as Vāgiśvarakīrti, and was attended by twelve junior paṇḍitas. He heard the

Doctrine from the ācārya Kālacakrapāda (dus zhabs pa), and was able to memorize

the whole text after listening to it once.

The holder of his Spiritul Lineage (was) one named dge bsnyen byang chub. His son

was a very great paṇḍita who studied under his father's brother dgon pa ba. He

obtained (the system) together with Nā-ro-pa from Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and

became known as Kālacakrapāda, the Junior.

Moreover differences in the views impressed by the "father" and "son". These

"father" and ?son" having once said while residing in Madhyadeśa that One who does

not know the Kālacakra, would not know the Vajrayāna, caused dis?pleasure among

paṇḍitas, who having gathered in Madhyadeśa, prepared seats at Vikramaśīla and

held a debate. jo bo chen po could not be defeated. Then all rose from their

seats, and he placed his foot on their heads. Except Dā-bodhisattva, all obtained

instruction in the Kālacakra from him. He became also known as dus? 'khor ba and

propagated widely the system.

At that time there was in the country of Kāśmīra an excellent brāhmaṇa scholar

named bzang po of Sūryaketu, when he was teaching the Doctrine to Paṇḍita

Sonasati, Lakṣmīkara, Dānaśrī, Candrarāhula, Somanātha, and others, the Paṇḍita

Vinayākaramati ('dul ba 'byung gnas blo gros) sent the Sekoddeśa and the

Sekaprakriyā, and he having given them to read to the paṇḍitas, all were filled

with wonder.

In particular, the Teacher Somanātha of Kāśmīra was filled with great faith, and

having discontinued his studies there, proceeded in search of that system. In

Madhyadeśa he met dus 'khor ba and asked him for instruction in the Kālacakra. The

latter having given him instruction, he became an accomplished scholar in the

complete commentary of the Tantra, in the Tantra itself, the precepts, and in the

initiation rite.
This Teacher belonged
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to a Brahmin family and till the age of ten he studied his father's doctrine, and

was able to memorize sixteen ślokas after reading them once. After that his mother

introduced him to Buddhism. He having mastered the science of the Kāśmīrī nyi ma

rgyal mtshan and Kālacakrapāda, the Junior, became a paṇḍita.

He, intending to spread the system in Tibet, proceeded there, and asked gnyos

'byung po: Are you able to translate this book? The latter replied : I am unable

to translate it, but there is a way out of it. I shall send a message to the son

of the kalyāṇa-mitra Ice pa of bzang yul in g.yor po who will be able to assist

you with money. He sent a messenger, after which Ice, father and son, invited him.

They requested him, and a proper translation (of the text) was made by him.
The great achievement of these 'father' and `son' was that, in general, they were

endowed with a proper reverence, and attended on all translators and paṇḍitas,

and, in particular, they possessed a great knowledge of the Mahāyāna Guhya?mantra.

They used to spend all their wealth for the sake of religion.

When they first met the great Kāśmīrī teacher (Somanātha), they presented him with

three golden srangs, a complete set of garments, including a mantle, and begged

him to stay. After that they saw him off as far as Chu śul and furnished him with

thirty loads of wine. a zha rgya ?gar rtsegs also acted as translator, and for a

whole year he fed thirty men and horses. (When they had finished the translation

of the text), he presented him as remuneration thirty golden srangs, as well as

another thirty srangs on various occasions. In all he presented him sixty golden

srangs, and pleased him.

After that the lo tsā ba and the paṇḍita were invited by 'gar ston of the Northern

Upland, the kalyāṇa?-mitra gra pa, and the scholar rdo rje rgyan of skar chung to

their residences. While they were receiving instruction in the Tantra itself and

its commentary, the kalyāṇa-mitra lce, father and son, also listened to it.

After that the Kāśmīrī Somanātha proceeded to India to present offerings to (his)
96 (% why is this here?- ZMR)
{R 760}
Teacher and the Vajrāsana. When he had offered a great quantity of gold, he

removed his doubts concerning (the Kālacakra) assisted by his former brother in

initiation (snga? ma'i mched po) 'dul da'i 'byung gnas blo gros and Siṃhadhvaja

(seng ge rgyal mtshan). When he (Somanātha) again returned to Tibet, lce, father

and son, obtained once more the Kālacakra from him.

There appears to have existed a later translation (of the text) by ?bro lo tsā ba.

lce, father and son, taught it to the bla ma 'go chen po of dol, named nyi ma. The

latter preached it to the great scholar klubs Saṇghakīrti. The latter to his son.

The latter to glan, the Great (glan chen po).

Again, according to the second Lineage: When the Great Kāśmīrī Teacher (Somanātha)

arrived in Tibet for the second time, he was pleased by the reverence and service,

paid to him by the kalyāṇa-mitra dkon mchog bsrung of 'phan? yul and his disciple,

who attended on him for a considerable time. He therefore bestowed on them the

explanation of the Tantra itself, its commentary (Vimalaprabhā), together with the

precepts, which he had not given to other Tibetan scholars.

They (dkon mchog bsrung dpon slob gnyis) bestowed them on the Venerable (rje

btsun) yu mo, the Great. From him the great scholar tre bo mgon po, the Great, and

the Master of the Doctrine se received them. The great scholar (mkhas pa'i skye bo

tre bo mgon po) taught (the system) to glan. He taught it also to klubs jo sras.

The latter to glan chos kyi dbang phyug.

Again, according to the third Lineage: dus kyi' khor? lo ba, the Last, and Śrī

Nā-ro-pa (transmitted it) to Ma?jukīrti (4b) and Abhayākara. These two taught the

Tantra and commentary (Vimalaprabh?) to the bla ma gnyan lo tsā ba and rgwa lo tsā

ba, who expressed the desire to study the Tantra only. The Venerable 'gos also

studied under these two teachers, and thus till the Master (mnga' bdag, se chos

kyi mnga? bdag).

Again, according to the fourth Lineage: Abhaya and his
{R 761}
brother taught it to the paṇḍita Samantaśrī, the lo tsā ba and paṇḍita. The latter

to klubs. Further, Anupamarakṣita, Sādhuputra, Dharmākaraśānti, and Vikśāntadeva.

The latter to the great Kāśmīrī paṇḍita Śākyaśrībhadra, matchless on the surface

of the Earth. He to glan, 'father' and 'son' --so it is said.
According to the dus kyi 'khor lo'i bsdus don, com?posed by the bla ma bsod nams

od zer ba:
Thus in the Realm of Śambhala exists the Kālacakra-Tantra together with its

commentary and precepts, but in the Āryadeśa of India, (the Kālacakra) was first

obtained in Śambhala from a mani?festation of a Bodhisattva by an Indian named the

monk bsod snyoms pa, the Great (Piṇḍo-pa). It is not known what Bodhisattva

manifested himself in him. The latter (taught it) to the Southern brāhmaṇa

Dārikapā(da). The latter to tsi lu pa. The latter to Kālacakrapāda. The latter to

dus 'khor ba, the Great. The latter to two of his disciples ?Bodhibhadra and

Sādhuputra. Bodhibhadra had three disci?ples: the guru Abhaya, tsa mi ba, the

Great (tsa mi sangs ?rgyas grags pa), and Abhiyukta.

Sādhuputra had two disciples: Dharmākara and Bhāskara. The ācārya se lo tsā ba

said that he had listened (to the exposition of the Kālacakra) once by the guru

Abhaya, twice by tsa ?mi, then (to the exposition of) the first part (of the text)

by Abhiyukta, and once by Bhāskara. From him gnyos 'od ma obtained it, who said

that he had studied it for three years. Then the teacher se lo tsā ba proceeded to

dbus. In his absence he (gnyos 'od ma) marked with white the passages in the text

that were not understood by him. On his (se lo's) way from dbus to India, gnyos

'od ma asked about these passages, and when se lo was coming to India all his

doubts were removed. He then obtained the exposition of all the texts, together

with their initiation rites and precepts, and all his doubts were removed.
bkra shis rin chen and gnyos sgom obtained it from 'od ma. The latter meditated on

the precepts and obtained the signs of spiritual realization. He also obtained the

permission (lung) to preach the text, but
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he did not Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. well. bkra shis rin chen listened

to it for 12 years, and knew it, as well as 'od ma himself, and thus be?came like

a well-filled vase. He also. obtained the teachings of rwa, ?bro, gyi jo, and

others, and used to say that 'there was no one better than himself'. The ācārya

dus 'khor ba ob?tained it from him on thirty-two occasions, and mastered it in the

manner of a vase filled to the brim. The scholar (mkhas grub) famous by the name

of Bhikṣu Ratnaśrī and u rgyan pa obtained it from him. I obtained the system from

the latter.

Again, according (to another) Lineage: the ācārya Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, was

the son of a yoginī who took him with her to Śambhala. (There) a monk of an

extremely beautiful appearance, blessed him, and he developed the ability of

committing to memory a thousand ślokas every day. After that the boy heard the

Mūla-Tantra, the Sa?caya-Tantra and the commentary recited by the monk who was a

manifestation of Avalokiteśvara. He committed these texts to memory and then

proceeded to Madhyadeśa. This boy on being ordained, became known as tsi lu pa; he

was also known by the name of tshim ?bu ba.

When the ācārya tsi lu pa was residing (at the court) of the king of ka ta ka, he

had three disciples, who made the request that the Tantra and the commentary might

be wr?tten down in the form of a book. So he wrote it down, and the books were

entrusted to the three disciples. One (of them) became a paṇḍita, another became

an adept, but the third was unable to pro?gress beyond the stage of an ordinary

human being.
Then the troops of a foreign king invaded the country. They (the disciples) hid

the Tantra and its commentaries in a pit, and fled away. After the war was over,

they returned, and searched for the (hidden books). (They discovered) that the

last paragraphs of the two lesser commen-
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taries were missing. The disciples again requested him to write down (the missing

portions), but he declined, saying : the dākinīs have hidden them, and therefore

it is improper to write them now.

After tsi lu pa proceeded towards the East to Kusum?pura (me tog khyim).

Upāsakabodhi obtained the system from him. This disciple Bodhi used to say that If

he does not understand the Kālacakra, the Doctrine, and especially the Guhyamantra

(gSang sngags) cannot be understood by him. All the paṇḍitas having assembled,

said: This is incorrect! Let us debate it! They conducted a debate at Vikramaśīla.

The Master (Bodhi) asked them about the contradictions in the upper and lower

sections of the different Tantras from the stand-point of the Kālacakra, but they

did not dare (to debate on the subject). They all begged his forbearance, and

asked the Master to instruct them in the Kālacakra, and in this manner the

doctrine spread. The Master's name became dus kyi 'khor lo ba.

khams pa zhu lo obtained the system from his disciples Ma?jukīrti and Abhayākara.

gnyan lo also obtained it. The bla ma 'gos obtained it from these two.

There exists a slight disagreement as to the origins of the Lineages of rwa and

?bro between the accounts given by bu rin po che in his gces pa'i lde mig, by glan

chos dbang, by the scholar bsod nams 'od zer? ba, and in the account of the

Lineage of gnyan lo tsā ba.

In particular, the one who was called Piṇḍo-ācārya was stated by some to have been

the Teacher of Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and again by others to have been the

disciple of Kālacakra?pāda. Some maintain that he (Piṇḍo) was identical with ngag

gi dbang phyug grags pa. They seem to imply that he was ngag gi dbang phyug, one

of the four gate-keepers (of Vikra?maśīla), but this does not seem to be possible.

Because in the treatise yan lag bdun ldan, composed by him, he expressed many

different views on the fourth initiation, but never mentioned the system of

{R 764}
On the other hand it can be said about the Kālacakra-sādha?nagarbhālaṃkara,

composed by the ācārya bsod snyoms? pa (Piṇḍo) that the very name of the śāstra

shows that it (6a) deals with the Kālacakra. Even if one were to accept as true

the statement of the rwa pas (followers of rwa) that prior to Kālacakrapāda, the

Great, there had existed two teachers of the Kālacakra, it would not be a

contradiction to say that Kālacakrapāda had received a blessing from Kulika (%ZMR

buddhist diety?) himself, who taught him the Tantra. Because, as stated by nyi ma

dpal, Vajradhara himself, assuming the form of Ava?dhūti-pa (%), had bestowed the

precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga (yan ?lag drug) on the ācārya Anupamarakṣita (dpe med

'tsho), and because others also maintained that Tilli-pa, a disciple of Vijayapāda

(rnam rgyal zhabs), who was the last of a numer?ous Lineage of teachers of the

Cakrasaṃvara Cycle, was a direct disciple of Vajradhara. The ācārya Anupamarakṣita

could not be later than the ācārya Nā-ro-pa, since Nā-ro-pa in his Sekoddeśa-ṭikā

quoted his teaching.

In general, even some of the accounts by Indian teachers, can be unreliable, for

instance in the commentary on Śūnyaśrī's Sadaṅ?ga-yoga translated by dpang (blo

gros brtan pa), Śūryaśrī (nyi ?ma dpal) is stated to have been a disciple of chos

'byung zhi ba, but, according to a statement of the Pre?cious mahā-paṇḍita

(Śākyasr?bhadra), Śūryaśrī (ni ma dpal) had been the teacher of Dharmākaraśānti

(chos 'byung zhi ba). The Commentary on the Sadaṅga-yoga though stated to have

been the work of Śūryaśrī, seems to have contained, as indi?cated by the title,

notes written down by one of his disciples. In two Indian books, consulted by me,

the very same state?ment is made.

The statement that the concluding para?graphs of the Hevajra-Tantra (brtag gnyis)

and of the Saṃvara?ṭikā had been hidden away by ḍākinīs, is unreliable, because it

is certain that the sizes of these books translated into Tibetan were the same as

those of the original books composed
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by the Bodhisattva, for in the Vajragarbhatika the above commentary on the

Saṃvara-Tantra is described as a conmmen?tary on the twelve and half ślokas (of

the Mūla-Tantra), and the entire commentary on these ślokas is extant in Tibetan,

and because in the Saṃvara commentary itself it instated that the Mūla-Tantra and

the "topics of the Six Extremities", as expounded in the ṭippaṇī, composed by the

Bodhisattva, should be studied by one proceeding to a country, situated South and

North (since they have been lost in Madhyadeśa), and further, because in the

Vajragarbhaṭīkā it is stated; (6b) by this the last chapters, such as the chapter

on conduct, are meant.

Though there exist various accounts which agree and disagree, they all agree (in

stating) that Abhaya, who belonged to the line of gnyan and se lo tsā ba,

Ma?jukīrti, who belonged to the line of rwa lo, and Somanātha, who belonged to the

line of ?bro pa, have been direct disciples of Kālacakrapāda, the Junior. They

also agree in that Kālaca?krapāda, the Junior, was a direct disciple of

Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, and therefore one is not to be troubled by it.
It is somewhat difficult to accept the statement that the first of the "past"

years ('das lo) of the period of 403 years (me? kha rgya mtsho) corresponds to the

year of the introduction of the Kālacakra in Madhyadeśa, for Abhaya had composed

the Introduction to the Kālacakra which says that about 60 years must have elapsed

since the appearance of the Kālacakra (when he was composing the book). In the

account of chag lo tsā ba it is stated that Ratnarakṣita had said that not sixty

years had passed, but 45 years. If we were to synchronize this date with the dates

given by Tibetan teachers, (we would see) that it corresponds to the sixteenth

year of mar pa and gra pa mngon shes, and
{R 766}
that at that time the Kālacakra had already appeared in Tibet.

It seems to me that Śrī Bhadrabodhi, the father of Kālacakra?pāda, the Junior, was

the person who had translated the Kāla?cakra with gyi jo. It is also stated that

one Nālandā-pa, a disciple of Kālacakrapāda, the Junior (dus zhabs pa chung ba),

had on one occasion visited Tibet, etc.

The Kāśmīrī Somanātha was able to commit to memory 16 ślokas after reading them

once, and was endowed with a pure perfection of con?trolling the acyuta-bodhicitta

(byang sems 'dzag med). Besides the Kālacakra, he preached in Tibet the secret

meaning of the sgron gsal, as well as taught the rtsa ba shes rab. I had seen the

text which was transmitted in his Lineage. Having mastered the Tibetan language,

he made an excellent translation of the don dam bsnyen pa. Later he journeyed to

mnga' ris, and it was said that lie had also translated the Great Commentary on

the Kālacakra.
Ice, father and son, obtained the Kālacakra from Somanātha. From them 'gro nyi ma

obtained the system. Again it is known that they (lce, father and son) had also

obtained it from glan lo tsā ba and other teachers. yu mo was also a disciple of

his, but the stream of his teaching (of the Kālacakra) seems to have been


sgom pa dkon ?mchog bsrungs having disposed of his entire property, realized six

golden srangs for it, and having tied a silk scarf to his neck placed it in the

hand of the paṇḍita, and thus offered him his own body, speech and mind. The

Teacher bestowed on him the exposition of the commentary on the Tantra together

with its complete precepts. Having heard it (recited) in the translation of ?bro,

he had to accept ?bro as his Teacher. Thus when enumerating the Lineage, he used

to say Somanātha, ?bro lo tsā ba, and sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs.

sgro ston gnam rla brtsegs was a scholar who in his early
{R 767}
life had studied the Piṭakas, and when he grew older came to Somanātha, who said

to him: If you take my belongings to man yul, on my return to Tibet I shall bestow

on you the system. Some of his other friends told him: one cannot buy the system

from the paṇḍita, you had better ask our sgom pa for it. Following this advice, he

requested sgom pa dkon mchog bsrungs to bestow on him the commentary on the Tantra

together with the precepts. The Teacher bestowed the complete system on him, and

he practised it, and achieved excellent results.

Later, when the paṇḍita (Somanātha) came again to Tibet, he went to meet the

paṇḍita, who said to him: I shall now give you the system.

snam la brtsegs replied: When I was young, you did not wish to bestow it on me.

But now, when I am old, I shall not ask for it.

The paṇḍita said you are satisfied with the precepts of dkon mchog bsrungs. If not

from me, from whom else did they originate? and saying so, he thrashed him.
snam la brtsegs replied: Yes, yes, it is due to the grace of the great Teacher!

Then the paṇḍita asked him: What did he give you? He replied: This and that.
The paṇḍita said: I do not possess more than this! Now take an'oath that you will

not preach it to others, saying so, the paṇḍita placed his rosary on his neck.
gnam la brtsegs replied: This was not preached by you, Teacher! (why then should I

take an oath?) --O wicked one! exclaimed the paṇḍita, and threw a handful of sand

at his head.

After that the paṇḍita said: Well, now you may preach it to others, but you should

preach the complete text, from end to end (mgo lus). In this manner he obtained

(7b) the permission.

In the same manner, when yu mo made a similar request to the paṇḍita, the latter

said, pointing at his luggage Carry this to Nepāl! I shall give it later. After

asking the advice of his friends, he asked sgro ston for it. The latter bestowed

on him the commentary on the Tantra together with the precepts, as well as the

Pradīpodyotana (sgron gsal) with its precepts. After that he
97 (%)
{R 768}
went to 'u yug, and practised meditation, and obtained realization (siddhi). He

had excellent disciples, and passed away at the age of 82. His disciples known as

wa brag dkar ba and one known as gnyal pa gro spent a considerable time immured

('dag 'byar) practising the bka' gdams doctrine. Later they came to yu mo and

practised the precepts, and on the very first day they obtained all the (ten)

signs (of meditation). They realized that the Kālacakra was the best pith and

meditated (according to the system). They were endowed with a great faculty of


gnyos sgyi khung pa: when he had reached the age of 70, he met bla ma chen pa (yu

mo). He preached to ngor rje. The latter taught (the Kālacakra) to dol pa 'gas

ston dbang phyug grub. The siddha Dharmabodhi has been a discip?e of yu mo tre po

mgon po having obtained all the precepts and the basic text, taught them

extensively. His Lineage had many branches.

The scholar Dharmeśvara was the son of the Great Teacher (yu mo), and was born in

the latter's 56th year. He taught the Sekoddeśa when he was twelve. At the age of

16, he taught the Great Commentary on the Tantra. He debated (on the Doctrine)

with numerous scholars, such as rgya gling pa and others, and defeated them. His

disciple khang gsar pa nam mkha' 'od was learned in the Piṭakas, such as the rigs

tshogs drug, and other texts. He taught the Great Commentary On the Tantra (the

Vimala?prabhā) and was endowed with an excellent mystic trance.

Dharmeśvara's daughter jo 'bum : in her childhood she was influenced by her

mother, practised magic, and caused the death of many enemies. After that she

practised medita?tion (according to the method) of the Sadaṅga-yoga (yan lag drug

gi rnal 'byor) and in this actual life she became an ārya, (8a) equal to a natural


Her brother se mo che ba nam mkha' rgyal mtshan: in
{R 769}
his childhood he suffered from a deficient hearing and speech, and therefore there

was not much hope (for him). Later he attended on khang gsar pa nam mkha' 'od and

mastered the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā). He prac?tised the Sadaṅga

and the "Six doctrines" of Nā-ro, and obtained a perfect mystic trance. He was

able to recollect clearly (his) numberless former existences. Because he resi?ded

at se mo che, he became known as the siddha se mo ?che ba.

His disciple 'jam sar shes rab 'od zer: his native place was Upper myang. He

attended on gnyal zhig and others, and became very learned in numerous Piṭakas.

For many years he purified his body performing austerities. For a consider?able

time he propitiated Vajrapāṇi and felt confident, think?ing none among gods and

demons are able to transgress my command.

When he was going to preach at rkyang 'dur, and was fording the gtsang po river,

on the road leading towards the residence of se mo che ba, at the hermitage of

grong chung, some asuras caused a shower of stones to fall, but he burst into a

song saying that he having become indiffer?ent towards the eight mundane dharmas,

did not know fear.

At the feet of se mo che ba he mastered the Commentary on the Tantra

(Vimalaprabhā) together with its branches, and the initiation rite (of the

Kālacakra). He practised medita?tion of the sampannakrama degree and within one

day obtained the (ten) signs (of meditation), and thus became a Master of Yoga

(rnaI 'byor gyi dbang phyug).

He had great faith in precepts, and used to say : If these precepts would have

been accompanied by diligence towards meditation possessed by the great ascetics

of the dwags po bka' brgyud sect, then this country (Tibet) would have been filled

with siddhas.

Later he had a vision of the face of Munīndra and his retinue, and offered the

{R 770}
The rite was first described in the Āryabhadracaryāpraṇidhāna?rāja. Having removed

all his doubts in regard to the Cause, Path and Effect of Enlight?enment before

the Buddha, I did not request him to expound the Doctrine, said he.

When preaching the Piṭakas, he used to teach it abiding in a state of perpetual

trance (mnam par bzhag bzhin). In his dreams he visited nume?rous paradises, such

as Sukhāvatī and others. He established meditative schools in hermitages and

maintained them with (8b) the help of his precepts. He thus obtained the power of

preaching and meditating.

His disciple the bla ma chos sku 'od zer: he was a natural son of gser sdings pa

gzhon nu 'od and was born in the year Wood-Male-Dog ('shing pho kyi ?1214 A.D.),

which follows on the year Water-Female-Hen (chu mo bya 1213 A.D.), during which

the kha che pan ?chen returned to Kāśmīra. chos sku 'od zer's story (rnam thar)

was briefly told in the Chapter on the school of the Guhyasamāja-Tantra. (Here I

shall tell) in detail about his meeting with the Dharmasvāmin 'jam gsar.

He was told by gser sdings pa to go there, because he had a karmic connection (las

'brel) with ?jam gsar ba. So he visited him, and while he was listening to the

initiation rite of Yamāntaka, he was the Teacher as Yamāntaka. He also listened to

the exposition of all the scrip?tures, philosophy and precepts.

When he was listening to the initiation rite of the Kālacakra, he saw the Teacher

as rdo rje ?shugs, and reported the matter to the Teacher, who replied: I also

feel proud thinking ?Am I not rdo rje shugs?? We, Teacher and disciple, should not

be handicapped by hindrances.
When he entered the maṇḍala (during his initiation), he saw a clear vision of the

j?ana-maṇḍala. At the time of
{R 771}
obtaining the fourth (initiation), as soon as the Teacher had said: Now you should

assume a posture like me, and keep your Mind free from thoughts (mi rtog pa), the

fluctuations ('gyu ba) of his Mind, big or small, came to an end, and he was able

to transform them into the mystic trance of the Great Bliss (bde stong chen? po).

Later while practising meditations in his meditative cell (sgom khang), he

suddenly achieved success, and the Dharmasvāmin told him that he had reached the

final stage of 'clearness' (gsal ba).

He taught at this monastic college the Doctrine, such as the Pramanāviniścaya and

other subjects. The Dharmasvāmin praised him highly. When he came to se mo che ba

to get from him an Introduction to the Doctrine (chos 'brel), the latter said: You

two ('jam gsar ba and chos? sku 'od zer) through many existences have been Teacher

and disciple. From him chos sku 'od zer heard the complete Commentary on the

Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) with its branches. He benefited others by bestowing

initiations, preaching the Tantra and precepts.

His disciple kun spangs (the ascetic) thugs rje brtson? 'grus : he was born at dab

phyar spang sgang in Northern la stod, in the year Water-Female-Hare (chu mo yos

1243 A.D.). (9a) In his youth he mastered the Piṭakas. He also looked after

numerous monks at the monastic college of rkyang 'dur, and was famous as a

proficient debater. On one occasion during his studies, he listened to the

complete exposition of the Kālacakra by the All-Knowing (kun mkhyen) chos sku 'od

zer. He obtained precepts, and while he practised meditations, he opened many

samādhi-dvāras (gates of trance).

Once, when an accident endangered his life,
{R 772}
kun mkhyen pa (chos sku 'od zer) perceived it, and came by himself (without being

called). kun mkhyen pa said: If you would have died this time, you would have

obtained the four "bodies, and saying so, he removed the dangers threatening his

life. After that he left his work as a student and preacher, and concentrated

exclusively on medita?tion, and became, known as kun spangs pa.

He heard the different exposition of the Sadaṅga-yoga (of the Kālacakra), whatever

were found in Tibet. He transferred his residence to the mountains of the North,

and while meditating, he subdued by the power of his concentrated Mind many

demons. He was invited to jo nang by jo mo nags rgyal, and he promised the goddess

to come there after three years. When the time came, he journeyed there, founded a

monastery, and looked after nu?merous disciples to whom he imparted both teachings

and hidden precepts. Among them: byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, la stod pa dbang

rgyal, mun me brag kha ba, and son pa kun rgyal are known as the "Four Sons of kun

spangs pa".

byang sems rgyal ba ye shes: he was born in the year Fire-Female-Serpent (me mo

sbrul 1257 A.D.). In his child?hood, kar ma pa pa shi pa accepted him (as

disciple) against his father's will, taught him the kar ma pa doctrines, and

looked after him (by supplying him) with (his) worldly needs. Later he proceeded

to bo mo nan and listened to (the exposition) of all the basic texts of kun spangs

pa, the latter's hidden precepts, and practised (meditation) according to them.
la stod pa dbang rgyal: he practised meditation and attained remarkable results.

During the same time he also composed a guide-book on the teachings of (his)

Teacher, beginning with the "bar du dge ba", or second section.

{R 773}
He improved the meditations of many (disciples) and removed their handicaps.
mun me brag kha ba grags pa seng ge: he was born in the year Wood-Female-Hare

(shing mo yos 1255 A.D.) at rgyal te thang kar in Northern gyas ru. He belonged to

the glan clan. In his youth he was ordained by the phro phu rin po che bsod nams

seng ge, and received the name of grags? pa seng ge. Later he received the final

monastic ordination in the presence of the same upādhyāya dbu ma pa ser 'bum

acting as ācārya, and bu stong seng ge 'od acting as Secret Preceptor.

From phya ru ba seng ge dpal of sa skya he heard the rnam 'grel, the Treatises of

Maitreya, the "Six Treatises al Nāgārjuna ' and the Tantra class were perfectly

mastered by him. However he was of the opinion that meditation represented the

Essence of the Doctrine, and therefore he asked kun spangs pa and byang sems rgyal

ye at jo mo nang for guidance in the Sadaṇga-yoga (sbyor ba yan lag drug), and

asked. them to expound the Tantra. They said to him: Go to Rong! He then heard the

Commentary on the Tantra together with its precepts from Akara?siddhi, the

youngest son of rgwa lo tsā ba. He, held in high esteem meditation at the

hermitage of gya' lung. Subsequent?ly he helped many disciples by preaching (to

them) the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) and by giving them guidance.
Later in the year of the Tiger (stag lo 1338 A.D.), when a great snow-fall

happened in the kingdom, lo ?be ba kun bzang acted as (his). supporter, and

settled him at
{R 774}
brag kha. He stayed there in seclusion and recited the mantra of the Kālacakra

10,000,000 times, made 1,000,000 ablutions, and many wonderful signs took place,

as for example flames assuming the form of precious stones, etc. Every day he

practised meditation on the utpannakrama and sampannakrama degrees, besides the

six āsanas (lus sbyong drug) of the body. He named as his four chief guide-books:

the sbyor? drug (Sadaṇga), the dmar khrid, the gcod, and the gzer lnga, and mainly

followed their prescriptions. During the summer seclusion, he spent most of his

time in the continuous practice of gcod (rgyun gcod).

He used to send all the property which came into his, hands to the monastery of

his Teacher. He was endowed with the faculty of prescience, and all his prophecies

concerning the future events at sa skya came true. He passed away at the age of 89

in the year Water?-Female-Sheep (chu mo lug 1343 A.D.) amidst wonderful (10a)

signs. After the cremation (of his remains), his body was transformed into a heap

of relics.

His disciples were the Dharmasvāmin bla mo dam pa and the dka' bcu pa gzhon nu

seng ge blo gros, wang mo zhu ba gzhon nu dpal, and many others. From sron pa chos

dpal, a disciple of sron pa kun? rgyal, brag nag pa chos skyong dpal obtained the

system of sron. The bka' bcu pa gzhon nu seng ge obtained it from him.
sron pa kun dga' rgyal has been the zu gur che of the Mongol Emperor, and was

ordained by bla ?ma 'phags pa, who introduced him to the study of the Piṭaka.

Later he obtained guidance from kun spangs pa, and obtained perfect results (in

his meditation). He met Avalokiteśvara and sha ba ri dbang phyug. His precepts

which were known as the "Method of sron" (sron lugs), slightly differed from

others, and through them he benefitted others. dpal ldan bla ma obtained the

"Method of sron" (sron lugs) from the following three: sron pa kun dga' rgyal, his

disciple chos dpal, and the mahā-upādhyāya bsod nams grags pa.
In this manner kun? spangs pa laboured for a long time for the welfare of others,
{R 775}
and then entrusted the abbotship to byang sems rgyal ye. He passed away at the age

of 71, in the year Water-Female Ox (chu mo glang 1313 A.D.).

byang sems rgyal ba ye shes, aged 57, occupied the abbot's chair of jo nang in

the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glang 1313 A.D.). Many kalyāṇa-?mitras, such as

the bla ma kun bsod pa and others, and many great men, such as the great official

byang rdor and the great official yon btsun, and others, became his disciples. He

used to, say: Most of those who had received my guidance, have obtained perfect

results. At least there had been none who did not complete the (ten) signs (of

medita?tion). He occupied the chair for eight years, and then passed away at the

age of 64 in the year Iron-Male-Ape (lcags pho spre'u 1320 A.D.). He being an

extraordinary man, the story of his life was written by the Dharmasvāmin rang

byung rdo rje.

mkhas btsun yon tan rgya mtsho, a disciple of byan?g sems pa: he was born in the

year Iron-Ape (lcags spre (10b) 1260 A.D.). At the age of 61, he occupied the

abbot's chair. He handed over the chair in the year Fire-Male?Tiger (me pho stag

1326 A.D.), and died at the age of 68 in the year Fire-Female-Hare (me mo yos 1327

A.D.). His native place was speng pa of mdog. In his childhood he followed on

numerous scholars at sa skya, such as 'jam? dbyangs pa and others, and studied

well the Piṭaka. He journeyed to the Imperial Palace in the retinue of 'jam

dbyangs ?pa. With 'jam dbyangs pa's, permission, he soon returned to dbus and

gtsang. Having come to jo mo nang, he thoroughly absorbed the initiation rite (of

the Kālacakra system), and the Tantra from both kun spangs pa and byang sems pa,

and received their guidance. His Mind concentration acquired a lofty character,

and he became the object of worship of all living beings.

kun mkhyen shes rab rgyal mtshan,
{R 776}
who had become his disciple: he was born in the family known as ban tshang of dol

pa. In his youth he became a disciple of skyi ston 'jam dbyangs pa, uncle and

nephew. He studied the Piṭakas, such as the bka' chen bzhi and others, also the

Tantras, such as the initiation of Vajramālā (rdo rje phreng ba) and others. He

especially studied the exposition of the Kālacakra after the method of rwa by both

the uncle and nephew ('jam dbyangs pa). He preached the bka' bzhi at sa skya from

his youth. Inspite of the fact that others did not like him doing so, he also

added the Bodhicar?yāvatāra, and preached it.

He visited the monastic colleges of dbus and gtsang, took part in debates and

became known as a good scholar. He studied extensively with many teachers. At jo

mo nang he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with its

hidden precepts from mkhas btsun yon tan rgya mtsho. After having practi?sed the

precepts, he experienced an incomparable result.

At the age of 35 he occupied the chair. Till his death he used to preach and

meditate (bshad sgrub). He erected the sku? 'bum mthong grol chen mo. Following

his orders, two of his disciples ma ti pan chen and the lo tsā ba blo gros dpal

revised (11a) in the year Wood-Male-Dog (shing pho khyi 1334 A.D.) the translation

of the Kālacakra. The Great All-Knowing (kun mkhyen chen po, shes rab rgyal

mtshan) having taken as basis this translation, composed an abridgement (bsdus

don? piṇḍārtha) on the Great Commentary on the Tantra (rgyud? 'grel chen mo) and


Further, he composed numerous short treatises (śāstras) on initiations and

meditation, on astrology, etc. After the erection of the sku? 'bum chen mo, a new

kind of meditation was produced in him. He said: It seems to me, that having

created Mount Meru, the Ocean gushed forth.
{R 777}
He composed learned treatises on the doctrine of gzhan stong, such as the nges don

rgya? mtsho, the bsdus don (its Summary), and sa bcad (its analy?sis), a

commentary on the Uttaratantra (rgyud bla ma), the Abhisamayālaṃkāra, a Commentary

on the General Doctrine (bstan pa spyi 'grel), the bka' bsdu bzhi pa, and others,

which filled dbus and gtsang.

When many scholars, disagreeing, with his theory (grub mtha'), came to discuss the

matter with him, their refutations were melted similar to snow when reaching the


Having installed the lo tsā ba on the abbot's chair, he proceeded to dbus, took up

residence in lha sa and taught the guide-book on the Sadaṅga-yoga. The territory

of lha sa became filled with (monks) practising ritualistic dances (nyams ?skyong

ba'i gar).

Later he proceeded to dpal jo mo nang, and at the age of 70 in the year

Iron-Female-Ox (rags mo glang ?1361 A.D.) proceeded to Sukhāvatī.

His disciples kun spangs chos grags dpal bzang po, phyogs las rnam rgyal, nya dbon

kun dga' dpal, and many others were learned men, who practised the Sadaṅga-yoga.

They filled all the mountain valleys and lands of dbus and gtsang with adepts

(sādhaka) practising the Sadaṅga-yoga. This Meditative Lineage spread greatly in

khams also. Even nowadays there appear to exist numerous adepts (sādhakas)

observing the rule of the periods of three half-months and three years on the

banks of the rma chu.

Now the Dharmasvāmin phyogs las rnam rgyal (bo dong phyogs las rnam rgyal): He was

a native of mnga' ris and was
{R 778}
born in the year Fire-Male-Horse (me pho rta 1306 A.D.). In his youth he proceeded

to dbus and studied at chos? 'khor gling the Sūtra piṭaka, such as the

Praj?apāramitā, the Nyāya, and other branches of knowledge. He became a great

scholar. He also took part in debates in both dbus and gtsang. Once when he was

taking part in a debate, he met the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po shes rab rgyal

mtshan, and was filled with faith. He took up residence at jo nang proper, and

obtained from kun mkhyen chen po the exposition of the Tantra and the initiation

rite of the Kālacakra, together with the hidden precepts, as well as many other

doctrines. He practised the precepts, and an excellent mystic trance was produced

in him. He regarded kun mkhyen chen po as the chief among his teachers.

kun mkhyen chen po's disciple byang? pa ta'i dban pa after consulting kun mkhyen

chen po, and his disciple, founded the monastery (chos sde) of ngam rings. kun

mkhyen chen po spent some time there. Then he entrusted (the monastery) to phyogs

las rnam rgyal, and himself proceeded to jo mo nang proper.

phyogs las rnam rgyal taught the Piṭakas for a considerable time, in particular

the Praj?apāramitā class and Logic. He gathered round himself many clever

disciples. Later he handed over the chair to bstan pa'i rgyal mtshan, and at the

age of 49 became abbot of jo mo? nang. After five years he handed over this

monastery also, and proceeded to dbus.

At 'tshal dbus gling (%) he preached to a large congregation of disciples the

initiation rite of the Kālacakra-Tantra and the hidden precepts. After that he

journeyed towards yar klungs.

When he was residing at rngor, the lo tsā ba byang chub rtse mo heard from him the

higher initiation (mchog dbang) of the Kālacakra. Having come to yar klungs, he

stayed at khra 'brug (%) and other places, and established numerous disciples on

the virtuous path. After that he pro?ceeded to gtsang and took up residence at se

mkhar chung. (%)
His life: he was born in the year Fire-Male-Horse (me pho?
{R 779}
rta 1306 A.D.) and lived to the age of 81, in the year Fire-Male-Tiger (me pho

stag 1386 A.D.).

My Teacher sangs rgyas rin chen pa obtained (the Doctrine) from him. He was born

in the year Earth-Female-Hare (sa mo yos 1336 A. D.) at sne'u mkhar as son of

mkhas grub chos dpal pa, holder of the Lineage of scholars and meditation.
Possessed of the spiritual heritage (gotra) of the Mahāyāna, in his child?hood he

never quarrelled with his playmates. From his youth, he listened to the exposition

of numerous secret doctrines (gter? chos) of his ancestors, such as the exposition

of the Hevajra?-Tantra (brtag gnyis) according to the method of rngog, the

(Vajra)kīla (phur bu), and Hayagriva Cycles of the "Old" believers (rnying ma),

the bla ma gsang 'dus, and other texts.

After that he journeyed to rtses thang and attended on chos seng pa, the Great,

and the ācārya 'od zer ?dpal pa, studied the Praj?apāramitā, and took part in

philoso?phical debates. After that he took up the study of the Pramānavārtika.
While he was memorizing the Commentary, he felt a desire to hear the (exposition)

of the Kālacakra. He then obtained from the lo chen byang chub rtse mo on one

occasion the complete text of the Great Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā),

and on another occasion half of the text. He obtained the complete text on two

occasions from the lo tsā ba nam mkha' bzang po.
From the Dharmasvāmin phyogs pa the complete initiation of the Kālacakra, and

twice the exposition of the Great Commentary of the Tantra, as hidden precepts the

Sadaṅga-yoga, and the Sevasādhana (u? rgyan bsnyen sgrub).
From the Dharmasvāmin phyogs pa's disciple rtogs ldan sngo nal ma ye shes rgyal

mtshan he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together with notes

by phyogs las rnam rgyal. From the ācārya 'jam sgeg he obtained the Śrī

Paramārthasevā and the lta 'dod mdor bstan. From yar? 'brog kha ba lung pa zhang

ston bsod nams grags pa he obtained the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā)

together with notes by kun mkhyen chen po. From ri ston blo chen 'od {R 780} he

obtained the translation of the Commentary on the Tantra by lo brags pa, which was

handed down from man lungs pa and the lo tsā ba grags pa rgyal mtshan, and the

Sekoddeśa?ṭikā of Nā-ro-pa.

When kun mkhyen then po came to lha ?sa, he took up the final monastic ordination

in his presence, and obtained from him several of the lesser doctrines. Among

these he held in high esteem the method of phyog las rnam? rgyal. After that he

consecrated himself to meditation.

During his practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga, he suffered during nine years from a

disease and felt the upper and lower parts of his body burning as if scorched by

glowing charcoal. However he did not interrupt his meditation. Having been

relieved of his affliction, his meditation greatly improved. He preached the

exposition of the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā). He constantly gave

guidance to numerous disciples in the practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga, who included

priests and laymen, males and females. During a considerable time he laboured for

the welfare of others. He passed away at the age of 86 in the year

Wood-Male-Dragon (shing pho? 'brug 1424 A.D.). He attended on the Blessed Maitreya

in the Abode of Tuṣita, which had been the abode of his former incarnations.
I obtained from him the complete initia?tion rite of the Kālacakra, as given in

the book on the maṇḍala (12b) rites composed by kun mkhyen chen po (shes rab rgyal

mtshan). I also obtained the text of the Great Commentary on the Tan?tra

(Vimalaprabhā), the guide-book on the Sadaṅga-yoga, the Sekoddeśa with the

commentary by Nā ro pa, as well as other commentaries (on the Kālacakra) by


The rin po che bsod bzang ba also studied thoroughly the Kālacakra with its

branches and secret precepts under the Dharmasvāmin phyog las rnam? rgyal and the

scholar nya dbon. During a considerable time he looked after disciples by

bestowing on them guidance, expositions and initiations. He also composed a

text-book on initiation rites (dbang sgrub).
{R 781}
and became the Teacher of all great men. The Dharmasvāmin de bzhin gshegs pa and

mthong ba don ldan also became his disciples. This yogeśvara who had attained the

stage of a scholar and a siddha, passed away at the age of 93 in the year

Water-Female-Ox (chu mo glang 1433 A.D.). His disciple the dka' bcu pa pad ma

bzang po ba expounded on many occasions the commen?tary on the Tantra

(Vimalaprabhā), as well as composed a large commentary on the Vimalaprabhā.

Further, the Dharmasvāmin chos bzang nyi ma, a disciple of rin po che bsod? nams

bzang po, founded the hermitage of g.ya' snang, and upheld the Doctrine by

preaching the Kālacakra, as well as by meditation. There appeared many adepts

(sādhakas) who concentrated solely on the practice of the Sadaṅga-yoga.
Again, 'jam dbyangs chos kyi mgon po ba, a disciple of kun? mkhyen chen po, took

over the chair of g.yag sde pan chen,(%) and for a long time preached the

Kālacakra. He had many learned disciples, including ?jam dbyangs rin rgyal ba and

others. Having come to the monastic college of rtses thang, he preached the

Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) to many piṭakadharas, of whom the best

student (gsan pa po) was the mahā-upādhyāya rin po che rgyal? mtshan bzang po.

He was born in the year Iron-Male-Tiger (lcags pho stag 1350 A.D.), when bu ston

rin po che was 61, He studied all the Piṭakas, and especially the "Four Books"

(bka' bzhi), at gsang phu and rtses thang. He was greatly attached to the'

practice of the Pratimokṣa, and possessed an excellent bodhicitta. He studied

under 'jam dbyangs chos ?mgon po, and having become learned in the Kālacakra, he

used to say (jokingly) that all the passages (in the Vimalaprabhā) uttered by

Avalokiteśvara, which said (that the rest of the text) was easily understood,

represented a prophecy indi?cating him (for he had understood them without


He benefitted a multitude of people by preaching to them. He composed in verses a

ritual book on the utpannakrama degree of the Kālacakra, and made the Kālacakra

the object
{R 782}
of his constant meditation. He heard the hidden precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga from

sangs rgyas blo gros pa, the mahā-?upādhyāya of the tshogs chen mo bas (%). He was

of benefit to others by preaching to them, and passed away at the age of 76 in the

year Wood-Female-Serpent (shing mo sbrul 1425 A.D.).

My Teacher Sakyaśrī was a disciple of 'jam dbyangs chos mgon po, and had studied

extensively the Kālacakra. He also listened to its exposition by the

mahā-?upādhyāya rin po che rgyal bzang ba and the rin po che bsod bzang ba. He

also listened to the exposition of most of the Kālacakra works of bu ston by a bla

ma known as dbang rin pa, who resided at rgyal lha khang, ('phan po), a direct

disciple of bu ston rin po che.

The mahā-?upādhyāya las kyi rdo rle revealed to him that he had been in a previous

life a kalyāṇa-?mitra of snar thang (%) learned in the Kālacakra. In a dream he

saw himself climbing a long stairway, and when he had reached the bum pa (the

spherical part) of a caitya, he saw in the corner of a shining maṇḍala of

Kālacakra the Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po. Since he saw himself being blessed

by dol po pa, he used to say that he had understood many doctrines. He proceeded

to Sukhāvatī at the age of 80 in the year Earth-Male-Dragon (sa pho 'brug 1448


Further, the ?upādhyāya of je rdzin tshogs pa, named rin? chen tshul khrims,

obtained the Kālacakra system together (13b) with its hidden precepts from the

Dharmasvāmin kun mkhyen chen po. He practised meditation and attained great


His disciple zho lung mtsho chen po benefitted numerous living beings with the

help of precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga. The disciple of rin chen tshul khrims pa,

the Dharmasvāmin bsod nams rgyal mtshan possessed a perfect knowledge of the

Sadaṅga-yoga and guided numerous disciples.

Again, the disciple of kun mkhyen chen po, 'jam dbyangs blo gros rgyal mtshan,

known as sman ?chu kha pa, looked after many disciples with the help of
{R 783}
initiations, by preaching to them the Tantra, by expositions, and hidden precepts.

His disciple the Dharmasvāmin smi ri ba founded the monastery of smi ri. He

introduced many disciples to meditation. There were about eighty of those who

observed a yearly seclusion (lo mtshams pa). Even nowadays this rule has not been


Further, the disciple of byang sems rgyal ye, the kalyāṇa-mitra who was born at

dar yul bye ma, and who was a disciple of stag lung rin po che sans rgyas dpal and

of ngo pa dar se, obtained the hidden precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga from byang chub

sems dpa' rgyal ba ye shes. He visited Wu-t'ai-shan (ri bo rtse lnga) and other

places, practised meditation and was known to have been a siddha. He spread the

Doctrine of the Sadaṅga-yoga in the Northern Quarters. A disciple of yon? tan rgya

mtsho ba and rin po che shes rab 'bum pa, named seng ge dpal, propagated the

Doctrine of the Sadaṅga-yoga in the Northern Quarter.

bo dong rin po che rin chen rtse mo, who had become one of the nine "sons" of gral

zhig, obtained the exposition of the Kālacakra and all its hidden precepts from

the bla ma se mo che ba. He also erected a large image which became known by the

name of dus 'khor lha mo che of bo dong rin? rtse. He recited diligently

10,000,000 mantras without leaving his mat. While he was making oblations (homa),

the flames assumed the shape of auspicious signs, such as the lucky diagram, the

svāstika (gyung drung 'khyil ba) etc. He used to preach the Kālacakra, and had

numerous disciples. In particular, there appeared 18 'parasol holders' (gdugs theg

pa). He bestowed guidance, and had disciples possessing miraculous powers. At the

age of 51 he proceeded to Śambhala.

bo dong rin po che's disciple stag sde ba seng ge rgyal? mtshan: he was born in

the year Water-Male-Ape (chu pho? spre'u 1212 A.D.) at pha li lung. He obtained

from the bo ?dong rin po che the Praj?apāramitā, the Pramāṇa (Logic), and the

Abhidharma, and especially the exposition of the initiation
{R 784}
of the Kālacakra together with its hidden precepts. After the death of the

Dharmasvāmin, he took over numerous monasteries, such as log grong and others, and

preached there. He had many learned disciples, such as the brothers shong, dkon

gzhon, the Senior and Junior (che chung), thur she, the Senior and Junior, and

others. Among his early disciples there were 13 'holders of the Parasol' (gdugs

theg pa). Later sna tsha rong pa sher gzhon, stag sde ba brtson rgyal, the bla ma

dge 'dun brtan, the ?upādhyāya yon mgon, and others obtained initiations (from

him). These disciples surpassed in learning the Teacher himself. He passed away at

the age of 83 on the 8th day of the Tiṣya month (rgyal) of the year

Wood-Male-Horse (sin pho rta 1294 A.D.).

shong ston rdo rje rgyal mtshan, born at bong ra of spyad lungs shar kha, studied

under stag sde ba numerous śāstras, such as Logic (Pramāṇa), etc. Having copied

about forty pages of the Kālacakra, he presented them as remuneration, and thus

obtained the complete initiation into the Kālacakra. He also listened to the

exposition of the Tantra and its Commentary (Vimalaprabhā), based on the

translation of ?bro (lo tsā ba). He studied under gro lung pa mdo sde rgyal mtshan

many Tantric treatises (sāstras) and astrology.

When the bla ma 'phags pa returned to Tibet, he presented him with a well composed

śloka of praise. Having said that he intended going to study the work of a

translator, he begged 'phags pa to send him on (to India), and the latter said :

It is a good idea! But it is difficult to acquire the ability of translating new

texts. Study well and interrogate paṇḍitas. Because of the shortness of my study

with the Dharmasv?min, I do not know properly the sdebs sbyor me tog gi chung po

composed by the Lord himself (sa skya pan chen), the tshig gi gter, and other

texts. Therefore you should at any rate master them! saying so, he gave him the

above men?tioned books, five golden srangs, and ten pieces of silk. Having reached

Nepāl, he attended for five years on the paṇḍita
{R 785}
Mahendrabhadra and mastered the five lesser sciences. He es?pecially studied the

science of grammar. Then he proceeded to sa skya, and prepared a good translation

of the Śrī?-Kālacakra-Tantra together with its commentary (Vimalaprabhā). This

(translation) was seen by the Precious 'phags ?pa who sent him a letter praising

him because he possessed better faculties than the lo tsā bas who had previously

translated the Kālacakra-Tantra.

shong (ston) translated for the first time the dpag bsam 'khri shing, as well as

corrected some other translations. He also introduced the study of Sanskrit

grammar, prosody, and lexicology (in Tibet). He taught the work of a translator to

his own younger brother shong blo gros brtan pa, and preached the Kālacakra-Tantra

and its Commentary. blo brtan preached it to sgra tshad pa rin chen rgyal mtshan

and to the lo tsā ba mchog ldan. 'jam dbyangs skyi ston obtained it from the

latter, and kun? mkhyen chen po (shes rab rgyal mtshan) obtained it from him.

Further, the bla ma dpal Idan seng ge ba, known to have been learned in the "Seven

Treatises on Logic" (tshad ma sde bdun) which he had studied under the lo tsā ba

mchog Idan, obtained them (the Kālacakra-Tantra and the Vimalaprabhā) in the

translation of shong. He also obtained the translation by rwa from rong pa shes

rab seng ge. kun spangs chos grags dpal bzang po obtained from him the complete

exposition (of the system ) according to the initiation rite and translation by


Again, kun? mkhyen 'dzims pa obtained (the Kālacakra) from mngon ?gra ba rin chen

rtse mo. From him and from the bla ma rgwa lo the complete methods of ?bro and rwa

were obtained by the monk tshul khrims 'bar, a native of dbus. dus 'khor ba ye

shes rin chen obtained it from the latter. kun mkhyen yon tan rgya mtsho obtained

it from him. Again, the Lord of Scholars (mkhas pa'i dbang po) dpang blo gros

{R 786}
pa obtained it from stag sde ba.

He was born in the year Fire-Male-Mouse (me pho byi ba 1276 A.D.) at south khyam

of la stod. His mother having died early, he was brought up on sheep's milk. In

his childhood, the Dharmasvāmin byang gling pa and the mahāsiddha u rgyan pa

looked after him, saying: he will become a great kalyāṇa-?mitra!

At the age of 7, he was ordained by the mahā-upādhyāya gser khang pa and me ston

'dul 'dzin, and studied the Vinaya (Pratimokṣa-sūtra). At the age of 13, he made a

new exposition of it. Then having heard of the fame of stag sde ba, he proceeded

to tsha sna (% place or monaster? ZMR%), and obtained many Piṭakas of the Tantra

and Sūtra classes from stag sde ba. He especially mastered the Kālacakra. When he

reached the age of 19, stag sde ba died. He studied with the lo tsā ba mchog ldan

the Ka-lā-pa and the Candra-pa. He also studied the Kāvyā?darśa (snyan sngags me


He learned the Prākṛta language from the a tsa ras (ācārya) whom he chanced to

meet. From a time he became a great translator. On seven occasions he visited

Nepāl. He translated and revised the translations of numerous texts of the Tantra

and Sūtra classes. He also composed numerous commentaries on Logic (Pramāṇa),

Abhidharma, and (other) branches of knowledge. In short, during his life-time

there was no better scholar than he.

Later he proceeded to dbus and opened the mental eyes of numerous Piṭakadharas at

ne'u thog, gung ?thang, stag lung, and other monasteries. The great descendants of

dpal sa skya pa, such as 'jam pa'i dbyangs don yod rgyal? mtshan, his brother and

others showed him respect on other occasions, also when he was not preaching the

Doctrine. He also acted for a short while as abbot of the monastery of bo dong ye.

While the Dharmasvāmin bsod nams rgyal? mtshan was listening to the recitation of

the text of the
{R 787}
permission (lung) of the Commentary of the Kālacakra-Tantra, he insisted that he

should practise it in real earnest. He spent a long time at gnas po che (%) and

preached his method of meditation, and his fame spread upwards as far as ya tse

(mnga' ris), and downwards as far as China. Having com?pleted his labours for the

welfare of others, he passed away at the age of 67 in the year of Water-Male-Horse

(chu pho rta 1342 A.D.).

dpal ldan byang chub rtse mo obtained, (the system) from the scholar dpang, whose

nephew he was. He was born in the year Water-Female-Hare (chu mo yos 1243 A.D.) ?n

Sou?thern la stod. In his childhood he became the disciple of the Venerable dpang

and mastered the three Piṭakas, the precious class of the Tantras, and the

Sanskrit language. He also studied the lesser sciences, and mastered them all. By

order of dpal Idan bla ma dam pa he became abbot of bo dong.

When dpal ldan bla ma dam pa proceeded to the Imperial Court, he attended on him

as far as stag lung. The stag ?lung rin po che Ratnākara made the following

request to dpal? ldan bla ma dam pa: Let this lo tsā ba rtse mo act as preceptor

of my nephew. bla ma dam pa agreed, saying he was at liberty to do so.

The one known as Nephew nam? mkha' dpal bzang po was an incarnation of

Dharmeśvara, son of yu rno. He recollected clearly all former events. rtse? mo

bestowed on him the Commentary on the Kālacakra-?Tantra (Vimalaprabhā) together

with the hidden precepts, and other doctrines. nam mkha' dpal bzang po became an

unrivalled great scholar and wrote many treatises.

Later, when residing at the monastery of stag lung, he entrusted the monastery to

bkra shis dpal brtsegs, and himself concentrated on meditation only in the mansion

called thang lha mdzod.(%) Later the great lo tsā ba (lo chen) stayed at yar

klungs, gdan ?sa thel, (% place or monastery) and gung thang, and satisfied

numerous scholars by a shower of religion, which included the Śrī-Kālacakra and

other systems. In particular, spyan snga grags pa byang chub pa obtained many

doctrines (from him). He saw the great lo tsā ba meditating by day and by night,

without leaving it, and
{R 788}
imitating his example, he stayed alone in darkness in a small hut, and devoted

himself solely to mind concentration. After that he journeyed towards gtsang and

stayed at chu mig ring ?mo.(%mon or place) He established many disciples in

initiation, and gave them his guidance, and passed away at the age of 78 in the

year Iron-Male-Ape (lcags pho spre'u 1320 A.D.).

The lo tsā ba nam mkha' bzang po, a disciple of the great lo tsā ba, who was

learned in Grammar, Logic, and the Kālacakra, also attended on the great lo tsā ba

(byang chub rtse mo), and preached extensively the Kālacakra in other localities.

The nephew of the great lo tsā ba, the lo tsā ba grags pa rgyal mtshan and his

nephew dpal 'jigs med grags pa accepted the doctrines of former teachers, and with

the help of their learned labours, worked for the welfare of numerous disciples,

and became Masters of the Doctrine.

This 'jigs med grags pa was born in the year Wood-Female-?Hare (shing mo yos 1315

A.D.) and passed away at the age 77 in the year Iron-Female-Sheep (lcags mo lug?

1391 A.D.). It also stated that he was born in the year Water-Female-Ox (chu mo

glang 1313 A.D.). The disciples of dpal 'jigs med grags pa, who were devoted to

their teacher, and who were continuously praising him, were the (16b) Lord of Men

(mi'i bdag po) rnam rgyal grags pa, who was very learned, and the great scholar

bsod nams rnam par rgyal ba.

bsod rnam par rgyal ba: he at first studied many Piṭakas, and having become a

learned man, he proceeded to yar 'brog to visit ?jigs med grags pa, and heard many

doctrines from him. He had great faith in his interpretation of the essence of the

Tantras. He composed numerous treatises, headed by a Commentary on the Kālacakra

in seven volumes and a detailed exposition of Tantric vows (gsang sngags kyi dam

tshig) of more than ten pages. Further, he listened to the exposition of the

Kālacakra proper by don grub kun dga', a scholar who had studied for a long time

the system of Kālacakra.
{R 789}

Now (here is an account) of (the school) which is known as the tradition of rwa of

Śrī-Kālacakra : The ācārya tsi lu pa having first obtained the Kālacakra, his

disciple was bsod? snyoms pa (Piṇḍo); the latter's disciple was Kālacakrapāda, the

Senior (dus zhabs pa che ba); the latter's disciple- Kālacakrapāda, the Junior

(dus zhabs pa chung ba); the latter's disciple Ma?ju?kīrti; the latter's

disciple-- the paṇḍita Samantaśrī of ye rang in Nepāl.

rwa lo tsā ba rdo rje brags pa's nephew, named rwa chos rab was very learned in

the Tantra class. He especially mastered the doctrines possessed by rwa rdo rje

grags pa, invited to Tibet the paṇḍita Samantaśrī, and (assisted by him) made a

good translation of the Kālacakra-Tantra together with its Commentary--the

Vimalaprabhā, and listened to its exposi?tion. He also translated many branches of

the Kālacakra, pleased the paṇḍita with his offerings, and escorted him as far as

Nepāl. The paṇḍita was pleased and presented him the hat of 'bum phrag gsum pa.

Having gone to dbus, he laboured exten?sively for the welfare of numerous

inhabitants of khams and dbus. He preached the doctrines, especially the

Kālacakra, to rwa ye shes seng ge. The latter taught it to rwa 'bum seng, who

(taught it) to the Venerable rgwa lo (tsā ba).

rgwa lo: When during the reign of khri srong Ide? btsan, king of Tibet, sba gsal

snang and sang shi were sent as envoys to invite Buddhist monks (hwa śaṅ) from

China, they invited one mi nyag who had been a hwa śaṅ, and the king made him his

chaplain (mchod gnas).

Among the Lineage of numerous mantradharas who had practised the teachings of the

basic texts of the Mahāyāna, were: at yar 'brog sgan mi nyag gzhon nu snying po,

his son gzhon nu seng ge, and the latter's son rig 'dzin snying po, who settled in

the country of rgya ma of rong. His son rdo? rje seng ge took over mkhar phug of

rong. The eldest of his four sons, named ye shes rdo rje, was a learned man,
{R 790}
and attained spiritual realization. He took over the monastery of dben dmar, the

seat of one called dbang phyug rgyal pa, who had obtained the siddi with the help

of precepts known as the dbyug chos of the Mahāmudrā. rgwa lo was born to him in

the year Water-Female-Hog (chu mo phag 1203 A.D.).

On being recognized as an incarnation of rgwa lo, he was called rgwa lo. His real

name was rnam? rgyal rdo rje. In his childhood he met the kha che pan chen

(Śākyaśrī) at ngur smrig,(%) who perceived that he was to become a remarkable man.

He (Śākyasr?) took the boy with his hand and pronounced an auspicious śloka.
During his studies, the boy became afflicted by the "king". He proceeded to thar

pa (%) to (interview) dpyal, and the affliction left him. There for three years he

studied the Sanskrit alphabet. He listened to the exposition of the Hevajra and

(Vajra)-vārahī Cycles, and afterwards preached them. All were filled with


From rwa 'bum seng he obtained the doctrines of the tradition the of rwa, and

especially the Kālacakra. He practised meditation, and obtained the perfection of

speech, and gained the faculty of composing new mantras. He taught the Kālacakra

and had many disciples. He died at the age of 80 in the year Wood-Horse (chu rta

1281 A.D.).

(man lungs pa)
His chief-disciple (was) the Venerable man Iungs pa, the Great. He was born ?n

the year Earth Female-Hog (sa mo phag 1239 A.D.). In the year Iron-Male-Mouse

(lcags pho byi ba 1300 A.D.) he took the vow in front of the Mahābodhi at

Vajrāsana not to partake of more than a single grain of rice and a drop of water

per day, while expecting a prophecy, by the Mahābodhi image. (17b) On the 12th day

(after his vow) the host poured some
{R 791}
water over his head but lie scarcely felt it. On the 18th day the Mahābodhi

(image) spoke to him, saying: O son of noble family! Proceed to Mount Potala, and

practise the virtuous conduct in the manner of Bodhisattvas in the presence of the

Bodhisattva Avalok?teśvara. Having received this prophecy, he rose and proceeded

southwards. While staying at the caitya of Śrī Dhānya?kaṭaka, a splinter of seng

ldang wood injured his foot, and he bled profusely. After healing his wound, he

obtained the Paramākṣarasukha (mchog tu mi 'gyur ba'i bde). Then attired as an

Indian yogin he crossed over the surface of the Ocean, as if walking on hard

ground, and proceeded towards Potala.

(rgwa lo?s disciples)
rgwa lo had many disciples: the bla ma phags pa, rin po che khro phu ba, lho pa

grub seng, thang? ston lo tsā ba, and others. His eldest son rgya gar brags pa

whose ordination name was blo gros nam mkha' dpal became learned in all the

doctrines of his father, including that of Kālacakra, and took over the monastery

of dben dmar. He built a vihāra, performed (there) extensive religious works, and

passed away.
(rgwa lo?s second son shes rab seng ge)
His second son shes rab seng ge was born in the year Iron-Female-Hog (lcags mo

phag 1251 A.D.). In his youth he studied grammar and the Kālacakra. At the age of

16, he taught the Kālacakra. At the age of 20, he proceeded to thar pa and

obtained the doctrine from dpyal. At the age of 22, he came to stag sde seng rgyal

and for five years studied the Praj?pāramita and Logic. He became especially

learned in Logic. He took part in philosophical debates in dbus and gtsang. At the

age of 30, he was ordained and received the final monastic ordination in the

presence of the bla ma chos rgyal 'phags pa and the upādhyayā mchims. He listened

the expositions of many (18a) doctrines. He invited the lo tsā ba grags pa rgyal

mtshang, and listened to the exposition of the Vajramālā initia?tion Tantric

texts, including the Ma?juśrīmūlatantra, etc., as well as the sman dpyad
{R 792}
yan lag brgyad
He took over the monastery of dben dmar, and preached there for a long time. He

also prea?ched many doctrines at various other monasteries, such as thar pa khro

phu, bsam yas, stag lung, gzhu kun dga' ra ba, sangs ?rtse gdong, chu mig, ston mo

lung, g.yus dga' ldan, and others. At the age of 41, he entrusted dben dmar to the

bla ma rdo rje rgyal mtshan and himself settled at dmu (%).

He founded Śambhar (%) (gtsang) and built there a vihāra. He copied the Tantra

section of (the bka' 'gyur) and the Vinaya, and laboured fur the welfare of living

beings. At last, he bestowed an initiation on the newly born Dharmasvāmin bsod

nams rgyal mtshan, and died at the age of 65 in the Wood-Female-Hare (shing mo yos

1315 A.D.).

He had many disciples among the descendants of sa skya pa, inclu?ding the ti śrī

(ti shih) kun blo and others; numerous disciples among great men, and many

disciples who were learned men, virtuous and benevolent, such as the lo tsā bas

yar (yar klungs grags pa rgyal mtshan), thar (thar pa lo tsā ba nyi ma rgyal

mtshan), dpang (dpang blo gros brtan pa). He had in particular many disciples

learned in the Kālacakra.

The third son (of rgwa lo) the ācārya rnal 'byor looked after the country. The

fourth son the bla ma Ākarasiddhi mastered the Kālacakra according to the

traditions of rwa and 'bro, as well as the complete systems of dpyal ba and sa

skya pa.

(rdo rje rgyal mtshan)
His son the bla ma rdo rje rgyal mtshan was born in the year Water-Female-Sheep

(chu mo lug 1283 A.D.). In his youth he studied grammar and was ordained by 'jam

dbyangs rin rgyal acting as upādhyāya, and the ācārya shes gyal acting as ācārya.

At the age of, 16, he took over the monastery of dben dmar. He maintained a school

(bshad grwa) of Kālacakra, and received the final monastic ordination in the

presence of the upādhyāya bka? bzhi pa and (18b) the upādhyāya zhal snga ba. He

studied the grammar of Candragomin (%) and different kinds of alphabets with the

{R 793}
pa lo tsā ba, and studied the Abhidharma and many hidden precepts (upadeśa) and

propitiation rites (sādhana). He obtained from the bla ma shes rab seng ge ba all

the instructions pertaining to initiation rites, especially those of the

Kālacakra, and mastered them in the planner of a vase filled to the brim.
Further, he obtained from the, upādhyāya zhal snga ba the Vinaya and the

Abhidharmakośa. From mdzo po lhas pa sangs rgyas sgom pa (he obtained) the

Vajramālā, transmitted through the Lineage of sgang lo tsā ba, the Guhyasamāja,

the Saṃvara Cycle according to the method of Atīśa, hidden precepts of the "Path

and Fruit" doctrine (lam 'bras), etc. Fur?ther, he studied many Tantras. He also

obtained from sri u chung pa blo ldan sed ge, the Guhyasamāja, the Yoga (Tantra),

the gsang ldan, the gdang bzhi, and other texts.

bla ma shes rab seng ge having died, he took over Śambhar (%) and dben dmar. For a

long time he carried on the preaching of the Kālacakra. After that he was invited

by the Great Emperor, because his fame had encompassed all quarters. He proceeded

to the Imperial Court in the Dog year (khyi to 1310 A.D.), and installed faith in

the Great Emperor and all his ministers. He died at the age of 43 in the year

Wood-Female-Ox (shing mo glang 1325 A.D.).

bu ston rin po che obtained from him the Kālacakra. At first he studied with thar

pa lo tsā ba the Grammar by Candragomin and mastered the work of a translator. He

fostered the incomparable hidden precepts of the Sadaṅga-?yoga which were

transmitted in the Lineage of Anupamarakṣita (dpe med ?tsho) (%), meditated, and a

wonderful experience was produced in him. He inquired into numerous difficult

points of the Kālacakra, and committed them to memory. Later he visited the bla ma

rdo rje rgyal mtshan at Śambhar. During the nine months of his residence there, he

attended the daily recita?tions of the Commentary on the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā),

and they conducted detailed investigations (into the system). He
{R 794}
also made a thorough study of astrology, and studied the "lesser" branches of the

Kālacakra. Following the advice of rdo? rje rgyal mtshan, he translated the

Commentary on the Sekod?deśa in 360 ślokas.

Having come to zha? lu (gtsang), he chose the Kālacakra as the subject of his

seasonal (19a) preaching, and preached it. He also composed many treatises

(śāstras) on the Kālacakra. Later he obtained numerous hidden precepts of the

Sadaṇga-yoga by kun spangs pa, which were in the possession of the bla ma 'phags

'od pa. While he was writing down notes on the Vimalaprabhā (Commentary on the

Tantra), he revised the translation made by shong. He wrote it out properly, after

it had been translated by two translators at jo nang.

In general, (one can say) that, although there were many men learned in the system

of the Kālacakra, as well as many siddhas, in the domain of the detailed

exposition of the system, bu himself was preeminent, the chief and the best.

Through his continuous teaching of the Kālacakra, he obtained numerous disciples,

the chief among whom was dpal Idan bla ma dam pa, who never left behind the book

containing the Kālacakra, and studied it with great diligence even while touring

the country. Having examined all the Commentaries and many different works

translated previously, he wrote on many branches of the Kālacakra, such as the

''Maṇḍala rite" (mngon dkyil). He also composed a Mahā-ṭīkā. While he was

preaching it at snye thang, more than 500 scholars possessing this text gathered

there. Later he made a revision of the Mahā-ṭīkā. Even at the end of his life, he

used to bestow complete initiations on numerous great kalyāṇa-mitras, though

himself suffering from an ailment.

The Dharmasvāmin bu's successor, the lo tsā ba rin chen rnam rgyal ba also made

the Kālacakra the subject of his seasonal preaching, and taught it. His Spiritual

Lineage exists until now. The Dharmasvāmin rin po che sangs pa kun mkhyen pa

obtained the complete Cycle of the Kālacakra from chos kyi dpal ba of gong gsum

bde chen, a disciple of the All-knowing bu (ston), and benefitted
{R 795}
numerous living beings. The Venerable tsong kha pa, the Great, also,heard the

initiation rites, the exposition (of the (19b) system), and the hidden precepts of

the Kālacakra from gong gsum bde chen pa.

He (tsong kha pa) taught the complete exposition of the Commentary on the Tantra

(Vimalaprabhā) in the year Earth-Male-Dog (sa pho kyi 1418 A.D.). Being a Master

of the Doctrine, the Lord All-knowing (tsong kha pa's) preaching of the system on

a single occasion only became like a banner which was never lowered, not like the

others who had preached (the system) on a hundred occa?sions. Such was the

statement by my Teacher.

Again, from bsod nams lhun grub, who was a clansman of the bla? ma rdo rje rgyal

mtshan, the bla ma ngag gi dbang phyug grags pa obtained the Kālacakra Cycle with

its branches. He looked after many disciples, and was learned in both the direct

and indirect meanings of the Kālacakra. He had the faculty of attracting the minds

of others with the help of rites, such as dance and song recitals, etc. He was

also learned its astrology and composed a treatise (śāstra) on it. His maṇḍala

rite received a great spread. The Dharmasvāmin rgod phrug ras pa used to say that

once when he was listening to his exposition of the guide to the Sadaṅga-yoga, he

saw the Teacher as sha ba ri dbang phyug.

Again, the se lo tsā ba gzon nu tshul khrims studied the Commentary on the

Kālacakra-Tantra, (Vimalaprabhā) on two occasions with tsa mi, on one occasion

with Abhaya, on one occasion with Bhāskara, and the first part of the Commentary

with Abhiyukta. While both Abhaya and Ma?jukīrti had been disciples of Nā-ro-pa,

Abhaya had been also a disciple of tsa mi. Bhāskara was also called Bhāskaradeva,

meaning "Sun god" ('od byed lha); the disciple of Śrīdhara (dpal 'dzin).
When se Io tsā ba came to Tibet, he taught the system to
{R 796}
gnyos dar ma 'od. The latter taught it to dus 'khor ba bkra shis rin chen. The.

latter to dus 'khor ba sangs rgyas rdo rje. The latter to Śrī u rgyan pa. The

latter taught it extensively basing himself on the translation by tsa mi, at la

stod, yar klungs and other localities.

snye mdo ba obtained it from grub chen pa (u rgyan pa), and, latter taught to the

Dharmasvāmin rang byung ba (ran byung rdo rje) according to the translation by tsa

rgwa lo tsā ba obtained the hidden (20a) precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga from tsa mi,

as well as studied it under Abhaya. He practised meditation and attained spiritual

realization (siddhi). His fame spread as far as zang s?gling. Having come to

Tibet, he bestowed these pre?cepts on zhang 'tshal pa and others. He laboured for

the welfare of others by bestowing initiations and precepts throughout dbus,

gtsang and Lower khams. He lived to the age of 89.

Again, when the paṇḍita Vibhūticandra was preaching Grammar to about five

disciples in Nepāl, there came a yogin wearing a black lion-cloth. At first the

disciples wondered at him, and informed the paṇḍita. The latter understood that

this was sha ba ri dbang phyug. He then requested the yogin to bestow on him the

Sadaṅga-yoga, the essence of all the Tantras, and the latter bestowed it on him.

The yogin stayed for 21 days, and said that he was going to Kāśmīra. When he left,

the paṇḍita (Vibh?ticandra) asked all the Tibetans, who had come to Nepāl: Who was

the most famous kalyāṇa-mitra in Tibet at the present time? They replied that the

greatest was ko brag pa. The paṇḍita then sent a Ietter to ko brag pa saying that

he possessed the profound precepts of sha ba ri dbang phyug, and that he should

come to receive them. ko brag? pa despatched suitable presents to the paṇḍita and

his retinue, and requested the paṇḍita to visit Tibet.

When the paṇḍita reached din ri, he bestowed the hidden precepts on ko brag?
{R 797}
pa, dpyal a mo gha, g.yung phug pa, nyeg po chos ldan, and mar ston g.yang 'bar.

The paṇḍita himself also listened to the hidden precepts preached by ko brag pa.

These precepts spread greatly. The ascetic zhang when preaching the pratyāharā

(restraining organs) stage of the Sadaṅga-yoga (so sor sdud pa), used to base

himself on this system only.

The kha che pan chen (Śākyaśrī) bestowed on the lo tsā ba dpyal chos kyi bzang po

the Commentary on the Hevajra-?Tantra (brtag gnyis), composed by Nā-ro-pa, and the

latter's secret precepts on the Sadaṅga-yoga (sbyor ba yan lag drug). These secret

precepts the lo tsā ba expounded in a book entit?led the Key to the Casket of

Precious Stones (rin po che sgom gyi Ide mig). (20b) gnyal pa hrul po, a disciple

of the lo tsa (khro phu lo tsā ba), composed a commentary on it. The book exists

nowadays. But the best of the initiations and precepts of Śrī-Kālacakra

(originated) from the Venerable Great scholar (mkhas pa chen po) Śrī Vanaratna

(dpal nags ?kyi rin chen).
This Precious Great paṇḍita was born as the son of a king in the town of dam pa

(Sadnagara) in Eastern India. At the age of 8, he received the noviciate from one

named Buddhaghoṣa (sangs ?rgyas dbyangs), who led many hundreds of thousands of

monks, was learned in all sciences and endowed with a great faculty of prescience,

and who acted as upādhyāya, and one named Sujataratna, who led many tens of

thousands of monks, and who acted as ācārya, at the vihāra called Mahācaitya.
He studied many sciences under these upādhyāya and ācārya, as well as with other

scholars. The upādhyāya produced in him a Mental Creative Effort towards

Enlighten?ment. He listened to the exposition of numerous profound initiations and

hidden precepts. At the age of 20, he received the final monastic ordination from

his former upādhyāya and ācārya. Then having become an ascetic, he journeyed to

seng ga'i gling. He spent six years
{R 798}
there. He visited many sacred places and miraculous images, many wonderful

miracles taking place. From the ācārya Dharmakīrti he obtained the Vinaya-āgama,

the 'od ldan, and other texts. He practised chiefly the mind concentration.
Then when he was about to return to Jambudvīpa , he had a vision of sangs rgyas

gangs chen mtsho. Unharmed by Heretics, he journeyd to the kingdom of Kaliṅga, in

Southern India. There a great paṇḍita named mi?i nyi ma, famed as a scholar in

(20a) Jambudvīpa, praised him in the following verse.

Great sthavira Vanaratna, Who has realized the freedom from Worldly attachment

(Virāga) Having cleansed the turbid defilement produced in the World, O beings!

Follow on him with devotion, in order to pacify the Saṃsāra.

He worshipped him for a considerable time. Again he proceeded towards the Śrī

Dhānya-kaṭaka mahā-caitya, and stayed for some time in the hermitage of Nāgabodhi

(klu'i byang chub). At first he met sha ba ri dbang phyug. Then while en route to

Magadha, he studied with the heretical paṇḍita Harihara the book Kalāpa, a version

which was seven times larger than the one known in Tibet.
Most of his time he spent in meditation practising the Sadaṅga-yoga. He especially

practis?ed meditation (according to Sadaṅga-yoga), observing periods of three

years, three half-months and three days in a forest situated beyond the river

called ka na kra sho tam. He attained an excellent mind concentration and met

Virūpakṣa, the Lord of Yoga, in a vihāra called Uruvāsa, and his disciple the

siddha Pāghala.

(In this vihāra) a miraculous stone image of Ārya
{R 799}
Avalokiteśvara spoke to him: Go to Tibet! After attending on a king, you will be

of benefit to many! In accordance with this prophecy, he first proceeded to Nepāl,

and there obtained from the great paṇḍita Śīlasāgara the Bodhicittotpāda according

to the method of the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra. He reached Tibet in the year

Fire-Male-Horse (me pho rta 1426 A.D.). On his arrival at lha sa and yar klungs a

few people only came to ask him about religion. He therefore returned again to


While he was residing at the vihāra of Śāntapurī of 'phags pa shing kun, there

came first the bla ma sangs rgyas dbyangs, and after that, Śrī sha ba ri dbang

phyug. They drew the maṇḍala-cakra, and bestowed on him the initiation into the

Cycle of Saṃvara, and in particular the uttara-?abhiṣeka (of Kālacakra), following

which he experienced an immutable Bliss.

Again, si tu rab bstan pa having despatched (21b) as messenger one named bod rgyal

ba, invited him, and he journeyed to rgyal rtse (gyang tse). About that time he

met smra ba'i khyu mchog chen po rang ston, the All?-Knowing. He bestowed several

precepts on him and other kalyāṇa-mitras. Later he proceeded to lha sa. There,

while residing on the srin po ri (%) with the "Great Lion of Speech" (smra ba'i

seng ge, rong ston), he received an invitation from the Dharmasvāmin grags pa

'byung gnas pa. He spent some time at the great monastic college of rtses thang,

where the Dharmarāja grags pa 'byung gnas and his chief minister obtain?ed from

him several initiation rites of the Saṃvara Cycle, according to the method of Lū

i-pa. After that, the Teacher and his supporter (grags pa 'byung gnas) proceeded

together towards gong dkar.

About that time grags pa 'byung gnas received on the srin po ri (%) the initiation

of Acala according to the Anuttara (Tantra). He (Vanaratna) had a vision of the

Saṃvara image (found at that place) to be alive. Then the great paṇḍita and his

disciples proceeded
{R 800}
to spa gro, and spent some time there. There he met Padmasambhava.
After that in the year Fire-Male?-Dragon (me pho 'brug 1436 A.D.) he proceeded to

sne gdong. Shortly afterwards he took up residence at rtses thang. He bestowed the

complete precepts of the Sadaṅga-yoga according to the system of the great ācārya

Anupamarakṣita on us, the 32 Piṭakadharas, headed by the mahā-upādhyāya of snar

thang bsod nams mchog grub pa, the great grags bzang? pa, the Great blo gros rgyal

mtshan pa, the mahā-upādhyāya of thel pa kun rgyal ba,(%) and chos kyi grags pa,

the Lord of Speech.

In the past bu (ston) rin po che had studied the hidden precepts according to the

method of Anupamarakṣita (dpe med 'tsho) with the thar pa lo tsā ba, however, with

the exception of the pratyāhāra and the dhyāna-aṅga, the prāṇā?yāma (srog rtsol)

and the other three aṅgas (of these precepts) belonged to the systems of other

paṇḍitas (and not to that of Anupamarakṣita). But here (in these precepts) all the

six branches (aṅga) belonged to the system of Anupamarakṣita. Therefore his grace

was very great.

The Spiritual Lineage (22a) of the above precepts: Avalokiteśvara, the ācārya

Anupama?rakṣita, dpal 'dzin dga' ba, 'od byed lha, 'grub thob nyi ma dpal ye shes,

chos 'byung zhi ba, Ratnarakṣita, mi dbang blo, phyog grol, Śākyarakṣita, rje legs

skyes, and sans rgyas dbyangs. The latter bestowed (them) on the Dharmasvāmin the

Precious Great Paṇḍita (Vanaratna).

At rtses thang after completing the exposition of the Guide to the Sadaṅga?yoga,

he (Vanaratna) bestowed (on us) the initiation of Acala of the Anuttara-Tantra,

and the blessing of (Vajra)vārahī, according to the six texts of the Vārahī Cycle.

Next year he (Vanaratna) bestowed on the Dharmarāja grags pa 'byung gnas the

complete initiation of the Vajramāla according to the system of the ācārya Abhaya,

having divided it into forty-five maṇḍalas. Its Spiritual
{R 801}
Lineage: Vajradhara, Vajra-yoginī (Vajravārahī), , Abhayākara Nāyakapāda ('dren

pa'i zhabs), stobs bcu dpal, Vikhyātadeva, Śrībhadra, Lalitavajra, Dharmagupta,

Ratna?kara, Padmavajra, Ratnākirti, Buddhaghoṣa, the Dharmasvāmin the Precious

Mahā-paṇḍita. After having attended the initiation rite performed by the

Dharmarāja, numerous great Piṭakadharas, who had mastered the sacred scriptures,

received the full initiation into the same maṇḍala.
The Spiritual Lineage of the Great Commentary

Śrīsaṃ?pūtatantrarājaṭīkāmnāyama?jarī-nāma which was bestowed (by Vanaratna) on

the Dharmarāja grags pa 'byung gnas pa and five other Piṭaka?dharas: Abhaya,

Nāyaka, Ratnabuddhi, Dharmagupta (chos sbas), Sahajakīrti (lhan skyes grags),

Dharmaśrī, Śākyadhvaja (Śākya rgyal mtshan), Vāgīśvarakīrti (ngag dbang grags),

Ratna?kīrti (rin chen grags), and the Precious Mahā-paṇḍita (Vana?ratna).
Again he (Vanaratna) proceeded to Nepāl via skyi? rong escorted by a retinue sent

by the king, and decided to go to Vajrāsana in order to erect a large image of the

mahā-guru Buddhaghoṣa. Robbers having heard that he had become the spiritual

teacher of the Tibetan king, waited for him on the road, and because of this he

had to postpone his journey (22b) there. He sent a man with offerings to

Vajrāsana. In Nepāl proper, he erected a beautiful golden image of Vajra?dhara

which he considered to represent Buddhaghoṣa, and in the meantime laboured for the

welfare of others by preaching various doctrines, etc. He spent his entire time in

work which was without equal, and concentrated mainly on meditative practice.
Later he again came to Tibet in the year Water?-Female-Hen (chu mo bya 1453 A.D.).

On his way, he bestowed on byang pa, father, and son, and their numerous retinue

the initiation into the Saṃvara Cycle, etc., as well as
{R 802}
preached during the journey many other doctrines.

Having reached yar klungs, he bestowed on the Great Lord kun dga' legs pa and his

retinue, as well as on smra ba'i dbang phyug ('"The Lord of Speech") bsod nams

rnam par rgyal ba and on many other great Piṭakadharas, the complete initiation

into the Sadaṅga-yoga. On some he bestowed the exposition of the sampannakrama

degree of the Vajravārahī Cycle. Further, he preached to the monastic

congregations at rtses ?thang, gsang phu, gung thang (lha sa), and other

monasteries. By establishing a multitude of people in various localities in the

mental Creative Effort towards Enlightenment, etc., he brought to an end their

Phenomenal Existences.

He was invited to gdan sa thel (%) and other places. He laboured extensively for

the welfare of others, as well as for his own, and observed wonderful signs of

mental concentration. He seems to have been the most popular among the paṇḍitas

who visited Tibet in later times. Especially in the exposition of the sublime

meaning (nīt-artha) of the Vajrayāna, his grace was like the restoration of the

life-string (srog 'thud pa). At our first meeting, he bestowed on me several

initiations, such as the initiation into the maṇḍala of Ma?juvajra, the complete

initiation into the Kālacakra according to rites described in the Commentary on

the Tantra (Vimalaprabhā), which was accompanied by certain other rites (not

mentioned in the Vimalaprabhā and belonging especially to the Kālacakra).
Its Lineage: Ādi Buddha, from Sucandra to Kulika Vijaya (rigs ldan rnam rgyal),

Kālacakrapāda, the Senior, Kālacakrapāda, the Junior, Śāyasiṃhadhvaja (Śākya seng

ge rgyal? mtshan), Gautamśrī, Madhaṅgarasvāmin, Ratnamaṅgala, Jinālaṃkāra Swāmin

Matimant, Śākyarakṣita, Sujata, Buddha?ghoṣa, the Dharmasvāmin the Precious

Mahā-paṇḍita (Vana?ratna). In the above manner, this Precious Great paṇḍita,

though he had no opportunity to expound the Great Commen?tary on the Tantra

(Vimalaprabhā), restored the precepts of both the utpannakrama and sampannakrama

degrees of the
{R 803}
Kālacakra, and his grace was great.

Later the lo tsā ba and scholar bsod nams rgya mtsho having come to Nepāl,

obtained numerous precepts from the Precious Great Paṇḍita and their practical

application (lag tu blang ba), and the accounts of the mystic experiences of the

mahā-paṇḍita, etc. The detailed account can be had from him. Further, he (bsod

nams rgya? mtsho) completed the translation of the commentary Vasanta-tilaka-nāma,

composed by the ācārya Kṛṣna (nag po pa), which was left untranslated, with the

exception of the commentary on the ten Detailed Expositions, and bestowed its


During his second (visit to Tibet) the paṇḍita on being requested by the Precious

Dharmasvāmin spyan snga ngag gi dbang phyug, composed a guide on the

Śrī-Cakra-Saṃvarapa?cakramavṛtti as well as expounded the text. The practice based

on the Pa?cakrama, which existed formerly in Tibet, belonged to the 'sanimitta'

class (mtshan ma dan?g bcas pa), but the one he bestowed belonged to the

sampanna?krama degree of the "animitta" class (mtshan ma med pa).

Its Spiritual Lineage: Vajradhara, Vajra-yoginī (Vajravārahī), Vajraghaṇṭa (rdo

rje dril bu ba), Kūrmapāda (rus sbal zhabs), Jālandharapāda, Kṛṣṇa (nag po pa),

Bhadrapāda (bzang po zhabs), Vinayapāda (rnam rgyal zhabs), Tillipa, Nā-ro-pa,

Yogendratilaka (rnal 'byor dbang po'i thig le), pad ma dkar po, ye shes 'dzin, dge

ba'i blo, Buddha?j?ana (sangs rgyas ye shes), the Great Lord Sujata (rje chen po

legs skyes), phyog grol, Dharmakīrti (chos kyi grags pa), Ratnakīrti (rin chen

grags pa), the Precious Dharmasvāmin Mahā-paṇḍita (Vanaratna).

Further, he bestowed on dpal bsod nams rnam par rgyal ba and others the rdzogs rim

sangs rgyas ?char pa by Lū i-pa, the kye'i rdo rje'i rdzogs rim snying po brgya pa

composed by Āryadeva, and the commentary on it composed by Herukadeva.
{R 804}
ratna performed extensive religious works in Tibet, such as translations of each

of the above mentioned texts, etc. He again returned to Nepāl, as prophesied by

his Teacher and his tutelary deity. He devoted himself exclusively to meditation

at the hermitage of Govicandra (%), met the mahā?siddha Lū i-pa and others, and

was pleased. He constantly supported the beggars of Nepāl by giving them food and

material gifts, as well as satiated the fortunate ones with different kinds of


At the age of 85, in the eighth month of the year Earth-Male-Mouse (sa pho byi ba

1468 A.D.) he said: I shall now hold the feast of going to the Tuṣita Heaven, and

offered a great feast to all the 'ju 'ju (%) of Nepāl, and to a crowd of beggars.

After that, till the eleventh month, various supernatural phenomena, such as

flower showers, earth tremours, rainbows inside his house, etc. were observed.

Especially on the 18th day of the 11th month, (it was observed) that while the

paṇḍita was preach?ing the Doctrine, streams of white water similar to milk filled

the air round his body. Till midnight of the 22nd day he held a Tantric feast with

his disciples, holders of (Tantric) vows, and gave out detailed prophecies about

profound doctrines and future events. Then having retired to his cell, he sat in

the "diamond" (vajra) posture on his meditative mat, holding his body erect, and

manifested the state of going to Heaven.

In the evening of the 23rd, when people were conveying (lit. inviting) his remains

for cremation at the Ram?do-Ii burial ground, the whole of the country of Nepāl

was enveloped by a great light, the points of the flames of the funeral pyre

became entwined with rainbows and rose towards the limit?less sky, and numberless

great miracles were observed. Even the dull Nepālese were filled with an

undifferentiated faith and seemed to share in the highest form of emancipa?tion.

This Great Soul, free from any kind of defiling defects, conformed to the ideal of

an ācārya as described in the Precious Tantra class. He also was endowed with all
{R 805}
the virtuous qualities. (listed in the Tantras) without exception, and especially

was believed to possess all the marks of a Holy Teacher as described in the

Kālacakra-Tantra, and those of a bestower of spiritual realization. Therefore he

became our highest and only refuge.

Now the Great Translator bsod nams rgya mtsho: In the garland of his former

existences, he performed the labours of the three boundless accumulations.
For the welfare of living beings, he reached the end of the Path. Though he had

attained the Highest Enlightenment (Abhisambodhi), a state characterized by

renunciation and knowledge which cannot be improved upon, there is no doubt that

he had assumed the form of a mahāsattva, a leader, who strove to convey the

travellers-disciples to the firm ground of salvation.

Having equipped the boat of action by crowding the sails of wisdom and

commiseration for the benefit of the helpless who had sunk into the dreaded ocean

of Phenomenal Existence (saṃsāra), stirred up by a hundred waves of imagi?nation,

filled with waves of defilement and the sea monsters of Karma, and surrounded by

the fire of the Aśvamukha range (rta gdong) of the (five) groups of elements,

constituting an ordinary individual, took rebirth as the equal of ordinary living

beings in the eyes of his disciples. The manner of his labours for the sake of the

Doctrine can be best told in eight chapters:

The first (chapter) relates the manner of his taking rebirth in the Spiritual

Lineage of Saints. The king of ngan lam known by the name of 'od kyi dkyil 'khor

can be?longed to a family without blemishes. He belonged to the rog (% should be

marked as clan but no stype ZMR) clan. In the past the religious king khri srong

Ide btsan in order to establish the Doctrine (in Tibet), had invited the upādhyāya

Bodhisattva (mkhan po Bodhisattva Santarakṣita) and the vidyādhara pad ma, who

ordained the seven "Men on Probation" (sad mi mi bdun). One of them, named, ngan

lam rgyal ba mchog dbyangs obtained the spell (siddhi)
{R 806}
of Hayagrīva.

Among his descendants there was an uninter?rupted succession of scholars and

siddhas, and the best among them, in both miraculous powers (siddhi) and

knowledge, was the great vidyādhara bsod nams 'od zer. He and mother dpal ldan

'dzom pa, a natural ḍakinī, had five sons and daughters. He (bsod nams rgya mtsho)

was born as the eldest of them.

At the time (of his being in his mother's womb), his mother saw in her dream that

she had found in a spring a golden vajra with five points, and that her Mind and

body became filled with bliss. They (mother and child) were nourished by sun rays

and surrounded by rainbows. Music pleasant to the ear resounded. Accompanied by

the above miraculous signs, the child was born on the 25th day of the 10th month

of the Wood-Male-Dragon year (shing pho? 'brug 1424 A.D.), known as khro mo or

"the fierce" (krodhī), at khyams khang gsar in yar klungs bstan thang.

He was named dpal 'byor rgya mtsho, because an increase in all kinds of gains was

observed. Later the Precious mgon rgyal ba of gsang phu brag nag gave him the name

of (25a) bsod nams rgya mtsho'i sde, a name which corresponded to its meaning. He

became known by that name to all. He was brought up with special veneration in the

midst of of the ocean of plenty. Like a lotus in a lake, he became the nectar of

the eyes of all people.

The second (chapter): The manner of his manifesting extraordinary deeds as a

child. Soon after his birth, when he was being fed on the lap of his nurse, all

felt attracted towards him. His daily behaviour differed from from that of

ordinary people. At the age of 4 or 5, he was taken to bsam yas, and as soon as he

saw the sacred images in the Temple of the Three Styles (dbu rtse rigs gsum or

sang yang temple), he performed different kinds of salutations and made offereing

(to them). He was overpowered by sadness (nges ?byung) towards the World, and deep

faith. His hair stood erect and he shed tears. On some occasions he used to preach

to his playmates on the subject of different kinds
{R 807}
of suffering of this Phenomenal Existence (saṃsāra) and Hell (durgata), and

directed, their Minds towards emancipation from them. He was able to master

without difficulty the alphabet and even excelled his Teacher. He used to recite

regularly mantras and sacred texts. He also composed a beautiful poem, perfect in

words and meaning, and presented it to his mother, who was fond of poetry. Because

of his (former) practice of meditation of the sampannakrama degree, he

(constantly) dwelt in a mystic trance, (in which) he contemplated countless

visions, and spent a long time gazing at them. Everywhere he used to erect altars

in front of the Three Jewels. In this manner he spent all of his time in virtuous

labours which were difficult to perform even by great beings, and always remained


The third (chapter): The manner of his ordination and of his continuous search for

knowledge. When he had reached the age of seven, rong ston pa smra ba'i seng ge

accompanied by his disciples came to bsam yas and revolved the Wheel of the

Doctrine. The (child) attended the religious class and showed great devotion

(towards rong ston pa). He felt sad pondering over the sufferings of the

Phenomenal Existence which was similar to a fiery pit. He thought that he should

take up ordination into the Doctrine. He was ordained by the Dharmasvāmin rang

ston who acted as upādhyāya, dwags ?po bkra shis rnam par rgyal ba acting as

ācārya, and the bka? ?bzhi pa shes rab dpal ldan as "Time recorder" (dus bsgo ba).

At the time (of the ordination) the upādhyāya said: He will become a holy man, the

owner of boundless doctrines, and encouraged him with these words. He was given

the name of Śākya rin chen.

While he was engaged in the study of the Pramāṇavārtika and the Praj?āpāramitā

under his uncle the ācārya ngag dbang ba, he used to learn by heart every day

three pages of the Pramāṇavārtika. He became an expert in the recitation of sacred

texts, and was able to practise the recitation of each sentence backwards. At the

age of 13, he preached for the first time the Praj?āpāramitā and the
{R 808}
Pramāṇavārtika, at the religious school of rtses thang, and filled all present

with amazement. Through this the religious king grags pa 'byung gnas felt

attracted towards him and said: I shall adopt this novice as my son! He paid for

his studies and entrusted him to the great dpal 'byor rgya mtsho ba. He studied

diligently the three great texts of the "Ten Books" during many days and nights.

He used to spend his time in work and never slept. His Teacher used to preach

daily seven diffetent kinds of texts, and (the boy) used to repeat the (26a) text

aloud (skyar chos pa). To repeat thus about twenty pages of the "arrow size" was

not difficult for him. During a journey, he committed to memory the text of the

bshes ?sprin while riding horseback, and completed it during a stage. Such were

his wonderful deeds of excellent wisdom which he had acquired by birth, by

practice, and by diligence.

At the age of 21, he chose the following texts and preached them for many months

at the religious assemblies of dpal rtses thang: The Five Treatises of Maitreya

(byams chos sde lnga), the dbu ma rigs tshogs, the Ratnamālā, the Suhṛllekha, the

Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra, the Mūlamādhyamakakārikā, Mādlyamakāvatāra, the

Catuḥśataka, the Abhi?dharmasamuccaya, the Abhidharmakośa, the

Pa?caskandlha?prakaraṇa, the Vinaya-sūtra (mdo? rtsa), the me tog phren rgyud, the

Triśatikā (sum brgya pa), the Prātimokṣa-sūtra, the Seven Texts on Logic (tshad ma

sde bdun) and the rig gter.
{R 809}
All scholars became filled with admiration towards him. And especially so the

Dharmarāja grags pa 'byung gnas pa who became more than satisfied, and said: He is

the only man who has done more than I had hoped for, among all those whom I had

assisted. Now he will be able to become my preacher! He was very pleased. The

first initiation obtain?ed by him in this present life, was the initiation into

the maṇḍala of 'khor lo chen po bestowed on him by his father, a great vidyādhara,

in his childhood. He was then given the secret name of Akṣobhyavajra (mi ?bskyod

rdo rje). Further, he obtained many "permissions" (rtes gnang, to read the texts

belonging to the Cycles) of gur (mgon po gur) and zhal (mgon po zhal? bzhi), and

the Kālacakra. He thought after that that he should satisfy his wisdom by

searching for the boundless Doctrine, giving up all partiality towards theories,

monasteries, etc. (26b)

He proceeded to na len dra and listened to many instructions by rong ston smra

ba'i seng ?ge, such as (the exposition) of the Five Treatises of Maitreya (byams

chos lnga), the Mūlamādhyamakakārikā, the Mādhya?makāvatāra, the

Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra (spyod 'jug), the dul ba me tog phren rgyud, the three

Bhāvanākramas (sgom rim), as well as numerous short expositions of the

Praj?ā?pāramitā and the theories of the Mādhyamaka.

From the Lord bkra shis rnam rgyal he heard the Praj?āpāramitā, Logic, texts

belonging to the Mādhyamaka system, the initiation of Hevajra and Nairātma (kye

rdor yab yum).

From rngog byang chub dpal, the last of the seven descendants of rngog (%), (he

heard) the initiation into the seven maṇḍalas of rngog, and obtained many

permissions (lung).

From dmar ston rgyal mtshan 'od?
{R 810}
zer (he obtained) many initiations of the Mantrayāna.

From the snar thang upādhyāya bsod nams mchog grub pa (he received) the permission

(lung) of the Pa?cabhūmi of Asaṅga (sa sde), From the mahā-upādhyāya kun rgyal ba

he obtain?ed many initiations, such as the Vajramālā (rdo rje phreng ?ba) and the

Vajracaryākṛyasamuccaya, the doctrine of the Path and Fruit (lam 'bras), the u

rgyan bsnyen grub, the "Six Doctrines" (of Nā-ro-pa), the Mahāmudrā, and many

others. He also attended numerous recitals of the Tantric section of the bka?

'gyur (rgyud 'bum), and many exposi?tions, such as the sgron gsal, and other

Having come to 'tshur ?phu (%) he obtained from ?jam dbyangs don grub 'od zer

whatever initiations, precepts and expositions of texts were found in the Ocean of

the dpal kar ma pa doctrine.
From the ācārya ye shes rgya mtsho ba and, after going to brag nag (%), from the

Lord rin chen rgyal mtshan, he obtained the initiation rites of many maṇḍalas of

the "Outer" and "Inner" Tantras, such as the Kālacakra and others.

From 'gos lo tsā ba gzhon nu dpal he obtained the Praj?āpāramitā and the Six Basic

Texts of the bka? gdams pas (bka? gdams gzhung? drug), and numerous initiations

and 'permissions' (rjes gnang) of the "Old" Tantras (snga 'gyur). In particular,

the lo tsa'i skad dod (a Dictionary for the use) of translators, the sgra'i sa

ris, the Śrī Kālacakra, the sgron gsal, the Hevajra, etc, as well as the

expositions of other Tantras. (27a) He used to familiarize himself with the

subjects preached by
{R 811}
the Teacher all day long, and in this manner he became a great scholar in numerous

Sūtras and Tantras. Further, he mastered the various sciences, such as prosody,

medicine and the arts, befitting a scholar. He became without effort the greatest

scholar on the field of rites and Tantric methods, such as ritual dancing, songs,

and the drawing and outlining of maṇḍalas.

In particular, he attended on Vanaratna, the great paṇḍita of Sadnagara (grong

khyer dam pa) in Eastern India, who had come to Tibet, and obtained from him

instruction, such as the Sadaṅga-yoga, the highest of all the Paths of Vajrayāna,

and the initiation of the Thirteen Deities of the Saṃvara Cycle according to the

system of Ghaṇṭapāda (dril bu pa), with the help of which the great paṇḍita

himself had obtained the realization, and the initiation and authori?zation of the

Kālacakra, etc. He saw the mahā-paṇḍita off to Nepāl as far as 'dol kha, and

obtained from him some extensive expositions of texts, such as the

Pratipattisāraśataka by Āryadeva (sning po brgya pa).

Though the paṇḍita (Vanaratna) could not give him the com?plete exposition of the

Commentary on the Kālacakra-Tantra (Vimalaprabhā), he gave him a detailed

explanation of the difficult points (of the system) in the form of replies to his

questions. He understood all the conclusions, and thus his grace in the Kālacakra

became great in this region.

Later rje thams cad mkhyen pa (the Lord All-knowing) byam pa gling pa, the Great,

and dpal kar ma pa, (the fourth) holder of the Red Crown (zhwa dmar cod pan 'dzin

pa), bestowed on him numerous initiations, expositions, recitals of sacred texts,

etc. He attended on nearly thirty teachers who were learned and possessed siddhis,

and thus crossed the Ocean of learning, (27b) his scholarly fame encompassing the

entire Earth.

The Fourth (Chapter): The acquisition of the virtues of an ordained monk. At the

age of 22, he acquired the virtues of an ordained monk before a congregation of 20

monks, the mahā-upādhyāya don grub dpal ba of the tshogs chen pas, who belonged to

the immaculate lineage of ordination of the
{R 812}
Great Kashmirian paṇḍita, acting as upādhyāya, the Lord 'gos lo tsā ba gzhon nu

dpal as karma-ācārya, and the great dpal 'byor as Secret Preceptor (gsang ston).

He became possessed of an excellent pure conduct which was pleasing to Saints


The Fifth (chapter): the opening of the gates of know?ledge caused by reflection.

During his previous extensive studies, he examined and investigated (the books) in

respect of words and their meanings, and did not satisfy himself with the mere

hearing (of their exposition). He put questions to his Teacher, put in order (the

Teacher's replies) and con?ducted debates with all those who were considered to be

scholars. Thus he mastered the innermost meaning of all sacred texts.

Further, he used to spend his time in seclusion at rtses? thang bsam gling, pho

brang 'um bu bla mkhar, rgyal bzangs, bsam yas 'chims phu, khrims khang gling,

brag lha klu phug, and other places. He studied all the sacred texts contained in

the bka? 'gyur and elsewhere, and acquired a deep under?standing of the essence of

the meaning of each word in these texts.

While residing at dpal rtses thang and las stod byang, (he read) twice the bstan

'gyur, the Collection of Works (bka? 'bum) by bu ston, the de nyid 'dus pa, and

other texts, all that was to be found in the Tibetan language. In short, wherever

he went, he used to read all available sacred texts, large or short. Everyday he

used to expand the ocean of his Mind, completely filled with the games of

knowledge. He became a great scholar similar to the king of precious gems,

fulfilling the desires of all living beings, headed by those who possessed a

strong wish for emancipation.

The sixth (chapter) : the acquisition of beatitude obtained by the power of

blessing (of the Buddha)-by this l mean the manifestation of the manner of

acquiring an excellent
{R 813}
This holy man having attaincd the degree of a fully-enlightened Mahāsattva abiding

in the higher stage, manifested the miracle of rebirth as desired by him. From his

childhood he turned towards the 'direct' meaning (nīta-artha) of the Doctrine, and

because of this, he was able to listen to many kinds of expositions (of the

Doctrine) by holy men, showed great diligence, and manifested many kinds of

perfection. He obtained the "Six Doctrines" (of Nā-ro-pa) from the Lord 'gos, the

mahā?-upādhyāya kun rgyal ba and 'tshur phu ?jam dbyangs go śrī. He practised

their (precepts) and an incontrovertible under?standing of the Mahāmudrā state was

born in him.

On being initiated into the maṇḍala of Śrī-Dākārṇavamahāyo?ginītantrarāja, he

became possessed by a deity and experienced an intense beatitude. When he obtained

at brag nag (%) the initiation rite of the Yoga?-Tantra from the Lord rin chen

rgyal mtshan pa, he got a pure vision, which made him understand the World and all

living beings (bcud) to represent the great maṇḍala of the three dpal (dpal mchog

dang po), rtse (rdo rje rtse mo), and dbyings (rdo rje dbyings).
Later when he was performing (28b) the initiation of the seven maṇḍalas of rngog

(%) for the benefit of his Holiness dpal chos kyi grags pa, the holder of the Red

Crown of Śrī kar ma pa (dpal kar ma pa zhwa dmar cod pan 'dzin pa),(%) he had a

vision of all the seven maṇḍalas of rngog (%) surrounded by a rainbow. When he

came to the sacred place of tsa ri tra, the local deity appeared in his proper

form, and performed work (on his behalf). He perceived the peculiarities of this

sacred place as corresponding to the real forms of ḍākinīs and vīras (dpa' bo)

according to the three phyi nang gzhan.

When he was performing twice the rite of preparing nectar pills (bdud ril bu) in a

skull cup endowed with
{R 814}
proper marks, the scent of the medicine enveloped his entire dwelling. The nectar

was seen to flow endlessly from a jar of wine (shings bu). He discovered the sign

of Vajra-garuḍa (rdo rje nam mkha' lding) at lho brag rnkhar chu. (%) At gro? bo

lung (%) he met the saint mar pa who gave him his blessing. He then sang the

following song:
In the spiritual palace of North Śambhala,
He was dwelling amidst five hundred queens.
Now he has come into my presence!
Do you see him? Is there (another) fortunate one?

He sang numerous psalms on his attainment of mental concentration at the above

places, as well as at sham bu, rgyal po'i khab, chu bar, 'tshel min, bsam gtan

gling, and other localities, and these psalms were received by all with amazement

in respect of their words and meaning.

He transformed himself into ?gos lo tsā ba gzhon nu zhabs, 'gro?n mgon phag mo gru

pa, and dpal che mthog, and preached the Doctrine presiding over an assembly of

ḍākinīs. However, he pretended that he had performed in a dream. He said that he

had seen smoke coming out between the eye brows of 'gos gzhon ?nu'i zhabs which

then spread in the sky, and when (29a) he had looked at it attentively, he saw

numberless forms of the śūnya-rūpa.
Later, when he was listening to the recitation of the gnas brtan gyi smon ?lam

chen mo by dpal byams pa gling pa, the Great, he saw the Buddha surrounded by,

arhats as well as the scenery described in the poem. The yakṣa (gnod sbyin) rdo

rje bdud 'dul laboured on his behalf in his real form. The Dharmarāja li byin ha

ra presented him with the seal of the Master of the Doctrine.
He had a clear vision
{R 815}
of the inside of the great stūpa of byams pa gling filled with a thousand Buddhas

of the Bhadrakalpa similar to a heap of grain. The Venerable Ma?jughoṣa stretching

out his right golden hand, placed it on his head and blessed him. dpal byams pa

gling pa, the great, having descended from the Tuṣita heaven, preached to him many

doctrines in the symbo?lical language (dgongs skad).

On many occa?sions he met the great paṇḍita (Vanaratna), who (appeared to him) in

the form of a paṇḍita, a yogin, and a god. After the departure of the great

paṇḍita to Tuṣita, he instruc?ted him in a vision to proceed to the Lake of tsa

ri. (tsa ri? gyu mtsho), preached the Doctrine to him, appointed him his chief

disciple, and gave him the śrīvatsa emblem of (his) heart.
In real life also, the skull cup which he used in making offerings to his Teacher,

acquired the colour of pearl, and out of it appeared a clearly visible image of

the great paṇḍita (Vanaratna). The inside and outside of the great stūpa of byams

pa gling appeared to his vision of wisdom as a pure sphere. Because of all this he

sang the following song:
The Dharmakāya, free of thought construction, the bodhicitta,
this sacred form endowed with the thirty-seven, marks of (29b) Enlightenment,
appearing as a great stūpa, displaying 84,000 gates of religion.

Even in the smallest particle of which, there (were found) countless paradises!
Do you see them? Is there a fortunate one?

It appears clearly to the eyes of myself, the yogin!
He perceived the complete ten signs (rtags bcu) of meditation after hearing the

recitation of the guide to the "Six Practices" (sbyor drug) by the mahā-upādhyāya

kun ?rgyal ba. He experienced a feeling of beatitude in his body and a wonderful

sensation of a change came over him.
Of the several different visions (seen by him) before the
{R 816}
dkar ru image of dam pa at ding ri, one (was) the vision of a manifestation which

appeared to be the real form of the image. The reflection of the image which he

saw in the mirror was a form similar to the image of bal thul ma, with a small

Mahābodhi stūpa on the crown of its head. He saw emanating from the space between

the eyebrows of this form innumerable signs of siddhi, and a tilaka mark inside

which appeared innumerable forms of the śūnya-rūpa. In this manner he obtained

numberless visions of the śūnya-rūpa. We find in his life?story the frequent

statement that he had seen innumerable forms of the śūnya-rūpa. This means that he

had seen by his eye of wisdom the Holy Sphere of Wisdom in which all gods of the

utpannakrama and sampannakrama degrees, Buddhas and Holy Bodhisattvas, equal to

atoms in numbers, appeared within each atom.

At zangs phu (%) of South ro bo? lung he was encouraged by a prophecy that he was

destined to attain spiritual realization in Nepāl, and obtain the mystic trance,

such as the svādīṣṭa (rang byin rlabs), and he proceeded to Nepāl. The Lord of

Miraculous Powers (siddheśvara) Vanaratna having manifested the innate wisdom of

initiation into the maṇḍala of Saṃvara,(%) which is the essence of the

undifferentiated "Outer", "Inner and "Secret? aspects, as well as the union of the

thirteen deities (of the Saṃvara Cycle), he became'a Bodhisattva Mahāsattva,

dwelling on the highest stage, and realizing the samādhi-aṅga, which was called

the prabhāsvara of the fourth stage of the Pa?cakrama of the Guhyasamāja.

The events which took place between his installation as Cakravartin of the Siddhas

and his attainment of the state of beatitude of the excellent stage were described

in his songs:
In the year of Bhānutāra (nyi sgrol byed, zhing spre? 1464 A.D.)
in the month of Visakha, in the southern region,
in the house of tam mra of gro bo'i klungs, (%)
{R 817}
when it was filled by feasting ḍākinīs,, (I was told that) the
prophecy by the nirmāṇa-kāya (Vanaratna) which said that
?at the time of the ripening of wild rice,
your wish will bear fruit',
would be made manifest.

This is the first encouragement (received by him).
Then in the year of Pārthiva (sa skyon, shing bya 1465 A.D.),
in the month of Citra (nag pa),
in the virāga- pakṣa,
on the day of Kulika (rigs ldan),
at ku la sam bu, when Caṇḍikā had glorified (me)
by her blessing,
a crow's dropping fell on my head and she said:
'O son! You who wish to meet your father,
will meet danger and obstacles'.
While I was terrified (hearing) this prophecy,
there appeared (again) the form of a red Garuḍa,
and gathered clouds (chu 'dzin) from the Four Quarters,
and caused a shower of rain to fall which inundated the
entire countryside.
After that the black form of Garuḍa was manifested,
and transformed itself into a Mahākāla, and said:
?This secret omen indicates that your worldly work will be
handicapped by ill-fame.
You should cultivate a desire towards Buddhahood Only.'
This was the second encouragement (received by him).
In the same year of Pārthiva (sa skyong 146 A.D.),
in the month chu stod in the śukla-pakṣa,
in the middle rgyal ba
{R 818}
In the southern `Island of Jewels'
The grandfather, the black faced ri dags dgra (sa ba ri),
And, my father, a monk in appearance
together bestowed, their blessing.
In a wooden house, surrounded by wooden boards,
Mother mig mangs (%) looked
after me!
This was secretly revealed to me by one of my own disciples.
It had the sign of a strict secret, and it was said,
'It was improper to reveal it in an assembly'.
This was the third encouragement towards Buddhahood.
Then, the son, wishing to return to his native country,
Arranged to go there disguised as a merchant.
In the year Wood-Hen (shing bya, Pārthiva, sa skyong, 1465 A.D.),
in the month of Aśvinī In the dark half of the lunar month, in the third Jaya,
In the region of the North, called ngam rim (in gtsang),
Near the Palace of the Kālacakra (image),
On an auspicious date (indicated) in the prophecy of the
(I had a vision) of twenty-four deer-eyed (ri dwags mig) damsels,
Naked, moving through
the Sky,
Who had come from definite places,
{R 819}
All of them were enjoyed by Heruka.
This is a great symbol of the hidden which indicates the
Innate Wisdom of those who are able to control the nadis.
The above was the fourth encouragement, difficult to obtain. Afterwards I

gradually reached the "Abode of Saints" (siddhas), chu bar, which has the shape of

the sacred letter "e".
In the month of Kulika-kārttika, in the third dga' ba of the
dark half of the month (kṛṣṇa-pakṣa), the father (Vanaratna),
wearing a religious robe of golden colour, and the mother, adorned with rich

greeted me, and I felt overwhelmed by joy.
I, the son, wearing the upper garment of golden colour,
uttered a prophecy to the parents,
and called their names, saying: "O Vairocana?vajra!" and "O Vajra-Tara!"
This is the wonder of wonders, a secret symbol (which indicates),
that I was not to be differentiated from them!
This was the fifth encouragement towards atttaining Enlighten?ment.
Then, travelling leisurely, in the 11th month, in the dark
half of the month (kṛṣṇa-pakṣa), on the 23rd day, in the abode Calakoṭa, in the

mountains (31a) called nyi ma mkhar,
In the house of kuṇḍala, aflame with Inner Heat (gtum mo),
my father (Vanaratna) properly embraced by a nun and
indulging in secret enjoyment,
told me and my friend Dīpam,
that we could now practise the śikṣa-caryā.
We entered it and beheld a boundless pure Sky.
{R 820}
We offered the prayer of Prabhāsvara,
and we attained the realization of the Self.
Then my Illusory body, consumed by shining flames,
I threw it away as, a snake its skin.
Then I heard a natural voice saying :
'There is still a little (left) of the gross body.'
This was a true sign of prophecy, supreme in excellence; This was the sixth

encouragement. A!

Then on the full moon day of the 12th month,
The father (Vanaratna) initiated my body, speech and mind,
as well as wisdom, into the maṇḍala (sdom pa) of the 'thirteen
deities of the grandfather.

Again, on my return, I satisfied (my) ordinary disciples with the same initiation.
Before Dawn, as if in a clear mystic trance,
I saw, with my own eyes, the following vision:
In a good house, a high seat was placed before my father
Vanaratna), who said : 'This mat is for you to sit on!' Then, on my head,
he placed his right hand endowed with marks,
and initiated me into the mantra of Samvara.
The secret of this symbol is most vast, and its meaning great.
It was the encouragement towards the Hidden.
It is the Seven, by which the Mind, consisting of different moods (cha shas can),
is transformed into the state of non?differentiation.

I was wandering amidst the illusory play of the gnas bdun like a child
{R 821}
But my father (Vanaratna) explained to me its meaning,
and encouraged me in the realization of the Meaning."

Having said so, let those, who were fortunate, who had (31b) obtained the power of

the virtue of Faith, who possessed the eye of the Doctrine and that of wisdom,

which had become a source of knowledge (pramāṇa), examine it in order to grasp its


After that he proceeded to the Svayambhūnātha?caitya, and while holding an

assembly at the Śāntapurī vihāra, he met the yogeśvara sha ba ?ri, who gave him

his blessing. He sang many wonderful songs:

Blessed by the grand-father sha ba ri, and by the grace of my blessed father

(Vanaratna), the image of the outer enjoyment melted into the vessel (Mind). Thus

the essence of the inner skandhas and dhātus developed into nectar.
May you gods, vīras and ḍākinīs be pleased with it!

There he pleased the great paṇḍita (Vanaratna) with the three kinds of Joys. He

obtained the entire secret treasury of the Hidden precepts in the manner of a vase

filled to the brim, such as the Sadaṅga-yoga, which had been personally imparted

by sha ba ri to the great paṇḍita (Vanaratna), the precepts of Padma Amitāyus (%)

imparted by the vidyādhara Padma, and other texts. He ex?perienced the Wisdom

peculiar to the essence of initiation (the fourth initiation).

When all his wishes were fulfilled and he was about to proceed to Tibet, the

Teacher told him that the Hidden precepts, which you have heard from me, had all

their Lineages, but I (myself), was able to hear all the Doctrine from sha ba ri

himself. These Hidden precepts which had
{R 822}
originated with me, should be occasionally preached to the fortunate ones who are

in search of the Path of the Yuganadd?ha (zung 'jug). These disciples were

perceived by the eye of my mystical trance. In this manner he received the great

encouragement to labour for the welfare of others.

Following his Teacher's prophecy, these (disciples) who were trained and given

precepts by the Lord, were able to develop without hindrance the understanding of

the Path. Through his pre?science he was able to perceive the birth of

understanding (in his disciples), by his eye of wisdom he was able to perceive the

births and physical traits of individuals, and used to guide them accordingly.
The seventh (chapter): Having thus become the Master of the Ocean of the Piṭaka

and of the Tantra class, and having attained realization, the story of his labours

for the Doctrine (is as follows).

This holy man was of the opinion that the Doctrine of the Enlightened One was the

foundation of all happiness and bliss. Besides exerting himself in the protec?tion

of the propagation and continuation of the impartial Doctrine by means of various

actions, he laid the foundation of the Three Jewels as the basis of the

continuation of the Doctrine.

He first erected for the shrine of his parents an image of the sambhoga-kāya of

Maitreya adorned with ornaments, one foot (in height), then a golden image of the

Teacher one span (in height). He caused to be made frescoes and paintings for the

great vihāra of dpaI rtses thang, and an image of Maitreya, and that of Siddhārtha

having 22 spans each. He repaired the bsam yas khrims khang gling (%), and placed

in the centre (of the altar) the images of Mahābodhi with its retinue, the image

of Santarakṣita (zhi ba 'tsho), and all image of rgyal ba mchog dbyangs, together

with two golden caityas enshrining the relics of his father. He also contributed

the building material for the erection of the great image at na len dra ('phan

yul), as if the image was being built by his own hands.
Later at the monastery of byams pa gling of gra, the Lord himself took over charge

of the work on the shrine
{R 823}
of the Lord All-knowing bsod nams rnam par rgyal ba. After that with the help of

the great alms-giver sa la spyod pa'i dbang phyug, the great official rin chen

bzang po and his con?sort, elevated by fortune and property, accustomed to the

giving of alms, with a lofty power of heart, dpal rdo rje bde? ma and her son, the

great official rin chen rgyal po with his brother, erected a bkra shis sgo mang

caitya of the Revolving of the Wheel of the Law, having 32 ? fathoms in height

and 22 fathoms ('dom) in width on each side, excellent in building material and

plan, and an image of Maitreya in his nirmana-kāya aspect represented in the

bhadra posture, having 57 spans at the back. He completed the building of the

caitya in 18 months, and the large image in 14 months.

This Mount Meru (these statues), built by miracles, which were beyond the Mind of

ordinary human beings, manifested inexhaustible wonders and were without equal in

this World, fit to be worshipped and admired by all men from scholars to fools,

who did not mind the difficulties of a long journey (to worship them). It is

impossible for me to describe in writing even a small part (of these images).
Further, while assisted by the above alms-givers, he erected a very large golden

image of the Buddhas of the Three Periods, a golden image of the Teacher

surrounded by the 26 arhats, he repaired the meditative cell and the vihāra of

spyi bo at mchims phu together with their images, (the monastery) of gra thang,

and other monasteries. He built the great meditative monastery (sgrub sde chen po)

of bsam ?gtan gling, and erected images and painted banners (thang ka) of the

Teachers, of the Lord himself, to whom he owed most, and painted images of the

principal deities of the four classes of Tantras, etc. He also prepared copies

written in gold of the Commentaries and the chief Tantras. Further, he prepared

copies of the Sūtras and Tantras together with their commen?taries. It is

impossible to enumerate all of these (books).

On his advice, the king of the Southern Provinces, dpal
{R 824}
bkra shis dar rgyas legs pa'i rgyal po erected a golden image of the Mahārnuni,

having 25 spans at the back, as well as a vihāra, a great caitya, a monastery, a

golden bka? 'gyur and bstan 'gyur written on paper. (On his advice) the nang so of

bsam lde grags pa mtha' yas (%) prepared a copy of the bka?? 'gyur written in gold

including the rgyud 'bum. He advised the nang so of yar rgyab, the great official

rin chen bzang po and his wife to complete the copying of the golden bka? 'gyur

which they were preparing.

Because of internal feuds in tsa ri'i gnas chen, the skull of (mid la), endowed

with marks (mtshan ldan thod pa), was taken to dwags po (%), and the monastery was

about to fall in ruins. He pacified the region with the help of meditation and

other means, and established the foundation of the Doctrine. Wherever (the Lord)

went, he used to repair and worship stupas vihāras, sacred texts, etc. He

distributed his income among the monastic congregation in numerous ways.

(Work as translator)
The story of his work as translator: When the great paṇḍita (Vanaratna) came to

Tibet, he acted as interpreter at numerous sermons. He made a new translation of

the Pratipattisāraśataka (snying po brgya pa) and its commentary, as well as

translations of many short texts, such as the text on the Vajravārahī Cycle called

rdo? rje rnam par sgeg ma, He also revised the translations of the Hevajra Cycle,

the Vajrapanjara (gur), the Saṃvaraudbhava (sdom 'byung), the Śrī

Tattvaviśada-nāma-Śrīsaṃvaravṛtti, and the manual on the rite of the maṇḍala of

the 13 deities of the Saṃvara Cycle (bde mchog bcu gsum ma). These translations

were excellent both in words and meaning.

(Commentaries composed by bsond nams rgya mtsho)
The śāstras composed by him: An exposition of the Commentary on the first two

chapters of the Śrī Kālacakra, a pa?jikā (bka? 'grel) on the rdo rje snying 'grel,

and the phyag rdor stod 'grel. This is the best text existing in
{R 825}
Tibetan on the Cycle of sems 'grel. Further, he wrote notes on the

Samādhirāja-sūtra, the Ratnakūṭa, and the Avataṃsaka.

Fur?ther, he composed notes on many Tantras, such as the mkha ' gro rgya mtsho,

the mngon brjod, the rdo rje mkha 'gro, also composed sadhanas and maṇḍala rites,

the sdom pa bcu? gsum ma, the mi gyo bla med, the Acala system according to the

Anuttara-Tantra, the phag mo (Vārahī), and most of the sādhanas transmitted by the

great paṇḍita (Vanaratna).

He composed manuals on the maṇḍala rites of gsang 'dus 'jig ?rten dbang phyug, the

rdo rje 'jigs byed, the 'jam dpal sgyu dra, the phyag rdor dbang bskur, the rngog

dkyil bdun, the zhi khro, the phur bu, the rta mgrin, and others. (%) He composed

guide books on the Pa?cakrama of the Sadaṅga?-yoga, etc., also composed the bka?

gso bsrungs spyi , the dud sol phyi nang, the lha mo dud sol ma phyi and the lha

mo dud sol ma nang, the gnod? sbyin (beg tse), and other rites. His complete

Collection of Works (bka? 'bum) contains about 12 volumes.

(Service to teachers, images and students)
The story (of his) worship of the Teacher, the images of the Ratna, and of the

monastic congregations: while he was listening to the teaching of his Teacher who

preached to him the Sūtras and Tantras, he manifested constant reverence and

worship of all. At the end of the preaching of the Doctrine by his teachers, he

used always to offer tea (chos ja) to the class. When they had finished preaching

the great treatises, he held the festival known as the "Festival of complet?ing

(the study) of treatises" (gzhung rdzogs ston mo), etc.
{R 826}
When he was attending a class on the Tantras and initiations, he offered a

gaṇacakra and a ceremony to the Tantra class. While engaged in the study of secret

precepts, he held the festival of khrid ston. On all these (34a) occasions, he

offered excellent food and suitable presents.

He used to perform worship accompanied by acts of reverence of body and speech. In

particular, he said: (% unclear where this quote ends ZMR) "When the great

paṇḍita (Vanaratna) came to Tibet, he offered his eighteen altar covers, and there

is no need of enumerating the large offering of gold cloth, etc. presented on many

occasions. The great paṇḍita (Vanaratna) having left for Nepāl, he used to send

him every year one golden srangs, clothes, etc.

Later, at the time of (his) annual and monthly memorial ceremonies he used to

present every year large presents to the great monastic congregations. To 'gos lo

tsā ba gzhon nu zhabs he offered first every year, later every month, excellent

and tasty food, summer and winter clothes, extensive offerings of gold and barley

grain. He also made presents to teachers of equal standing and performed the

annuall and monthly memorial rites for his own parents, and for deceased teachers.
(Offerings to monasteries)

The story of his offerings to the large and small monasteries, etc.: he increased

the grants (to various monastic establishments); he offered gaṇacakras (Tantric

feasts) to revered teachers at the sacred place of ca ?ri tra(%); he paid for the

offerings of tea at the great monasteries, such as tshogs chen pa. and others; he

arranged for the memorial ceremony of the precious upādhyāya; he paid the expenses

of feeding khrims khang gling; he secured lands for both blo and ka chu, (%) etc.
At the time of the revolving of the Wheel of the Doctrine of the Ocean of Piṭakas

and Tantras during the summer recess at the monastery of byams? pa gling and at

the time of the Great Assembly, many thousands of monks belonging to large and

small monastic estab?lishments gathered there, headed by the inmates of the three

tshogs sde (tshogs sde gsum). He supported the great festi?vals which were admired

by all, and during which they used to
{R 827}
recite the great praṇidhāna of the Sthaviras and that of Bhaiṣa?jyaguru in the

morning, and various other prayers in the evening, as well as (performed religious

plays), which led the people present towards virtuous deeds.

He also purchased land plots to defray the cost of the great and small Tantric

rites (sgrub mchod). He stimulated faith in great alms-givers who supported the

meditative monastery (sgrub sde) of bsam gtan gling. Thus he himself performed an

ocean of labours which transgressed the sphere of the Mind.
Since his youth, while engaged in the study of Philo?sophy, he used to make daily

sacrifices of two balins before the Ratna, of offering lamps (dkar me), and of

whatever flowers he was able to gather in summer and winter, according to season.

During the funeral rites for his parents and his deceased spiritual teachers, and

later during the bestowal of initiations of dpal rtse dbyings gsum, khams gsum

rnam rgyal, and 'jam dpal sgyu 'phrul dra ba, etc, at btsan thang, khrims khang

gling, and other monasteries, during the Kālacakra and other ceremonies at the new

monasteries, during the sgyu 'phrul dra ba and other rites at the time of the

consecration of the great stūpa at byams pa gling (%) and at the time of his

preaching of many "Old" and "New" Tantras, and the "Seven maṇḍalas of rngog" to

the Precious Incarnation of zhwa ?dmar pa at dol lhun grub lha rtse and rnam

rgyal, and constantly during the performance of consecration rites, homa offerings

and maṇḍala rites, he used to worship according to the number of deities in each

of the maṇḍalas, and prepare the usual daily offerings properly and in prescribed

numbers, in abundance and cleanly prepared. The above shows that he was endowed

with the great miracle of the Heavenly Treasury. Other people at a mere glance at

them were filled with faith and this served as a good example for them.

The Revolving of the Wheel of the Law: In general he was of the opinion that

meditation represented the essence of the Doctrine, and that he had to show

diligence in it.
{R 828}
The Precious great paṇḍita (Vanaratna) had also said: Since now was the time of

gathering the essence of the Doctrine, there was no need of going hither and

thither. Meditate chiefly. During the intervals you can preach the method by which

one could find the beginning of the Path of yuga?naddha. There is no better

benefit to others than the preaching of the Path of yuganaddha. Such were his


When his followers begged him to revolve the Wheel of the Law, he replied Those

who keep in their Minds their own benefit and honour, and preach the Doctrine for

the sake of gathering a retinue only, can be called hypocrites. Enough of such

preachers and students! I, myself, considered the acts of the three main gates

(acts of Body, Speech and Mind), especially the act of meditation, to be of

benefit to others, but knowing the difference between works that were almost

useless and those that were of little use, and those that were useful in all

respects, I do not care to perform now insignificant works in the, interest of

others, but afterwards I intend to perform constantly extensive works in the

interest of others with the help of the power by which I shall be able to benefit

beings numerous as the Ocean in the Ocean of Paradises of the Buddhas.

Though he did not preach extensively the Piṭakas to his attendants, he satiated

them with the nectar of the Doctrine expressing the very essence of the, meaning

of the Sūtras and Tāntras during a single class on religion, according to the

state of the disciples' minds.

While he was staying at a philosophical college, as assistant teacher, he was able

to increase the wisdom of many wise men. At brag nag he taught to many, who had

come there from khams, the theory and the ritual dance of the Yoga rite. To more

than fifty men he gave many initiations, such as the ?jam dpal sgyu 'phrul dra ba

and others. At mchims phu he bestowed on many the initiation of the four

divinities of the Hayagrīva Cycle. At rtses thang he taught the exposition of the

Hevajra (brtag gnyis) and
{R 829}
other texts, and numerous initiations, such as the zhi khro, etc. to the bka? bcu

pa of nyan re and to many others, who included lhun sde bab 'byams pa and many

others. At thar pa gling, sman rgyal, g.yam bzangs, and other monasteries, he

taught to many seekers the initiation of gsang 'dus ?jig rten dbang phyug, the

secret sādhana of Avalokiteśvara, the exposition of the "Six Doctrines" of the

Mahāmudrā, the exposition of the Sāmādhirāja-sūtra, etc. At rgyal po'i khab he

taught to the bla ma 'brang ri ba, to the bla ma tshul la and others the

exposition of the Sadaṅga?-yoga, to honoured priests (jo bzangs) of tsa ri the

exposition of dgongs gcig (by 'bri khung pa), the exposition of the "Six

Doctrines" of the Mahāmudrā, and the initiation of rdo rje rnal 'byor ma.

At the monastery of dbang po to the bla ma 'brang ri ba and others the initiation

of Saṃvara, Hevajra according to the method of Maitrī and others. At Eastern lho

brag he preached the Hevajra-Tantra (brtag pa gnyis) and numerous initiations,

permissions (lung), etc to dbal Amogha and 'od bzang ba, the master of the house

(gzims? dpon) of the Dharmasvāmin po dong ba. To bka?? bcu pa bsod bzangs and

others he preached the Summary of the Kālacakra (dus kyi 'khor lo'i spyi don). At

Western lho ?brag he preached on two occasions to more than fifty disciples,

including the Dharmasvāmin bstan rim pa, dang spro mkhan chen po, the bla ma dza

sna ba, sle'u chung pa, and others, the Sadaṅga-yoga, the dgongs gcig, the dril bu

lus dkyil, and the bla ma gsang 'dus.

At yar 'brog kha ba klungs (%) he preached to the Dharmasvāmin kun dga' rgyal po

and to many elders of the mngon dga' monastery, and to meditative hermits of the

meditative monastery of bsam sdings the Sadaṅga-yoga, the initiation of Saṃvara,

the Mahāmudra, and to numerous
{R 830}
Tantrics (sngags pa rnying ma pas) he gave the initiation of zhi hro, phur pa,

Hayagrīva, etc. according to the wish of each of them. At North la stod he

preached the initiation of zhi khro, etc., and the exposition of the Guhyagarbha

to numerous Tantrics and bon pos, including the official (master, bdag po) chud

kha pa.

Later at byams? pa gling during the great summer recess he bestowed on the three

great zur, (%) including byang chub rnam rgyal of chos' khor sgang pa (% chos? is

not a mispelling accoding to the text ZMR%), and to a thousand monks, residents

and non-residents, headed by chen po bsod nams 'od zer ba, the ācārya bstan gsal

ba, the ācārya shes rab dbang po, and others, the Samādhi-rāja-sūtra, the

Śikṣāsamuccaya, the Munimatālaṃkāra, the sa sde lnga (of Asaṅga), the be bum sngon

po (of po to ba), and the great commentary on the byams smon. In this manner he

helped to bring out the essence of the sublime meaning.

In particular he preached during many years the great Vinaya of the Mantrayāna

(which contained the vows of Mantrayāna) to the inmates of byams pa gling.

Further, he preached to the Dharmasvāmin Āryadeva and to many others the

Commentary on the Hevajra-Tantra (brtag gnyis) by Vajragarbha, the nā ro 'grel

chen, the dgongs cig, the zab mo nang don, and other texts, and the initiation of

Acala according to the Anuttara-yoga-Tantra (mi gyo bla med), etc.

Again to many (disciples), headed by the khams pa the Kalyāṇa-mitra bka? bcu pa,

mi nyag rab byams pa chos kyi grags pa, rab 'byams pa bde bzang ?pa, mnga' ris rab

'byams pa ser rgyal ba, rab 'byams pa legs bshad pa, and to many learned

kalyāṇa-mitras he preached extensively on about four occasions the zab mo nang don

and the dgongs cig. To about fifty students, including chos 'khor sgan pa, the

'phags pa gdan sa ba dpal bzang pa, and others, the Dohā in 160 ślokas, the tshul

khrims le'u,
{R 831}
the Ma?juśrīnāmasaṅgīti, etc. He also bestowed on many occasions the "Guide on the

Sadaṅga?-yoga", on virtuous ones, including the rab 'byams pa ser rgyal ba, (36b)

legs bshad pa, and others, as well as on the meditative her?mits of bsam gtan


During that time also he taught the ?Guide on the Sadaṅga-yoga" for half a year on

more than 30 occasions. The king who observed the Worldly Dharmas Hyendu kun dga'

rgyal mtshan the khri dpon of yar 'brog with his brother, his son Hyendu lhun grub

bkra shis, the yar rgyab dpon chen (great official) rin chen bzang po, the queen

rdo rje bde ma, her son the great official kun dga' rin then rgyal po, his younger

brother the Dharmasvāmin bsod nams ye shes dpal bzang po, his son the tshal pa

nang so lha dbang pa with his son, the nang so of bsam bde grags pa mtha' yas with

his minister, rgyal ba pa, the khri dpon of bya pa, and his son dpal bkra shis dar

rgyas legs pa'i rgyal po with his brother, all honoured him. He bestowed on them

numerous hidden precepts, instructions, and initiations which purified their minds

and protected them from misfortunes. In particular he bestowed on them the

initiation into the three auspicious maṇḍalas and mantras.

In this manner the whole country-side became blessed and unconquerable by others.

They all became adorned by the Ocean of Worldly and Spiritual values which he

bestowed on them by leading them towards the foundation of virtue which

represented the method of rendering worldly wealth fruitful.

The Lord of byang pa rnam? rgyal grags pa and his son, though proud of their

descent in public, privately they greatly esteemed him as their Spiritual Teacher,

and on many occasions they used to put him questions on the Doctrine, and honoured

him greatly. Especially his Holiness chos kyi grags pa ye shes dpal ?bzang po, the

fourth hierarch of the Red Crown (zhwa ?dmar cod pang 'dzin pa) of dpal kar ma pa,

a manifestation of the Jina Naṭeśvara (kar dbang) (%) Vajradhara, the Great,

begged him, who had been his spiritual preceptor 105 {R 832} during many previous

existences, to come to khams, and to become his spiritual preceptor in this life

also. He sent the invitation by messenger with large presents. The messenger

arrived when the bla ma was residing in tsa ?ri, but he was unable to go there.

Later he purposely journeyed towards dbus, and they became Teacher and disci?ple,

more intimate than close friends. He at first bestowed on him the initiation of

the two-faced Vajravārahī, that of the Thirteen gods of Saṃvara according to the

system of dril bu? pa, Acala according to the Anuttara-yoga?Tantra (mi gyo bla

med), the "Seven maṇḍalas of rngog", the 'khor lo sgyu drug, the sangs rgyas thod

pa, the phur pa spu gri, the rdor dbyings, the phyag rdor dbang bskur, the dam

tshig gsum bkod, the Amitābha initiation according to the method of dze ṭa ri, the

initiation of bde mchog cam mkha' dang mnyam pa, etc., the rje btsan, the dud sol,

the phyag bzhi pa according to the method of Nāgārjuna, the na ro mkha' spyod, the

don grub ma, the 'jam dbyangs lha lnga, the bla ma gsang 'dus, the tshogs bdag,

the tshe ring mched ?lnga, etc., the Hevajra, the gur, the Sampuṭa, the gdan gzhi,

the Mahāmaya, the Ma?juśrīnāmasaṅgīti with the explanations of the rngog Lineage,

the ye shes rdo rje kun ?las btus che ba, {R 833} the nying mo rgya pa, the mūla

and its commen?tary, the grub snying, the a ma na si, the zab mo nang don and the

dgongs cig, the permission (lung) of the 'gro mgon bka? 'bum, etc., the

Sadaṅga-yoga, the Guide-book on the sampannakrama degree of Vajrayoginī, and the

Pa?cakrama of dril bu pa according to the method of the great paṇḍita (Vanaratna),

and the collec?tion of precepts including the hidden precepts of bsre 'pho, the

chos drug mkhar dkar ma, the precepts of ma ya'i rdzogs rim pa'i nu ma. Thus chos

grags listened to the heavy shower of religion, profound and extensive, and became

the chief of the sons.

Further, on many fortunate ones he bestowed initiations and expositions fulfilling

the wish of each of them. He stated that the Śrī Kālacakra clearly explains,

without hiding, the doctrine of yuganaddha, the essence of all the scriptures. If

one were to grasp its meaning, one would be able to penetrate all the scriptures

of the Sūtra and Tantra classes, for all the others are just means of

understanding this doc?trine. For it is the essence of the Doctrine.

He used to interpret all the doctrines of the Sūtra and Tantra-classes with the

help of the Kālacakra, never separated from the book, and used to expound it. He

clearly sounded the fearless roar of the lion, saying: The ultimate Goal of all

(the Doctrines) is the understanding of the vehicle of yuganaddha. Also he used to

say: One who had placed his faith in this vehicle, if he were to die touching with

his forehead the volume on {R 833} the Kālacakra, he would draw nearer to the

state of Enlighten?ment, than he who had studied numerous Piṭakas, and had become

a scholar. In this manner he held the doctrine of the Kālacakra in high esteem. He

preached extensively on many occasions the spyi don (of the Kālacakra), as well as

extensively preached to many of his attendants and Piṭakadharas, headed by chos

'khor sgang pa.

The assemblies of fortunate ones whom he had liberated by giving them guidance on

such subjects as the Sadaṅga-yoga, etc., were numberless. I have given a brief

account of these events. In reality (yan dag par na) he was endowed with all the

qualities of a kalyāṇa-mitra, such as the sign of possessing the nature (38a) of a

Bodhisattva, courage, eagerness (spro ?ba), exertion (brtun pa), never giving up

the vows of morality, never breaking his promises, commiseration towards the low

and wicked ones, kindness without cause, the returning of kindness shown to him by

others, kindness towards those who attempted on his life, and possessed of

extensive knowledge. He was bound by the vows of the Pratimokṣa (nges? 'byung)

accompanied by a Mental Creative Effort towards the Mahāyāna (the Bodhisattva

vow), he was not defiled by natural sins, and by transgressions of religious vows,

he did not transgress the limits of the precious vows of permission and

prohibition (dgag sgrub). In this manner he perfected his pure conduct, and was

endowed with the complete accomplishments set forth in the Vinaya of the Holy

Doctrine, fit for a Teacher. His mind was fully awakened towards the entry into

the vehicle of Vajrayāna, and he never transgressed, even for a brief moment, the

ordinary and extraordinary vows.

He experienced the Innate Wisdom des?cribed in the (third) initiation. He also

perceived the affirmation of the fourth initiation, which is the hidden state of

all the Tantras. He possessed the four pratisaṃvedyas, {R 835} he was kind and

free from pride. He was endowed with all the characteristics of a venerable

teacher (dpal ldan bla ma), and thus became the sole protector of the entire World

including that of the gods. One should remember the Ocean of his life-story and

repeat his name. One should reverence him in every way, have faith in him and

salute him constantly with great and unshak?able faith. What use is there in

troubling oneself by writing about the minor miracles of his life? (38b)

The eighth (Chapter): his passing into Nirvāṇa. Though the great Bodhisattvas

abiding on the lofty stage (sa chen) are liberated from the bondages of birth and

death, this expression is used here in order to indicate a technical religious

term signifying a feeling of sorrow towards imper?manence. While every day he used

to bestow profound and minute instructions on the mahā-upādhyāya tshal min ghos

kyi grags pa, mnga' ris rab 'byams pa sher rgyal ba, chos 'khor sgang pa, the

Dharmasvāmin rte'u ra pa, rin chen chos rgyal, and others, he gathered his

apparitional body on the 7th day of the 9th month of the year Water-Male-Tiger

(chu pho stag 1482 A.D), called dge byed, at the age of 59.

On the 10th day he manifested the appearance of proceeding to Tuṣita, and numerous

wonderful signs, such as rainbows, flower showers, scent, etc., were observed by

all. The fourth kar ma pa hierarch, the "Holder of the Red Crown" (zhwa ?dmar cod

pang 'dzin pa) came there and comforted the disciples, telling them that the Lord

had truly gone to Tuṣita. The hierarch stayed with them till the end of the 49th

day and exhorted them to meditate. The hierarch was present at the cremation,

offered blessings on the occasion of the funeral, rites (dgongs rdzogs ngo bo

bsngo ba), performed the consecra?tion ceremonies of the precious "outer" images,
{R 836} and wrote a praise of the Teacher and his Biography, and thus fulfilled

the Teacher's wishes. They used white sandal wood for the cremation, as well as

myrobalan and scented woods, etc. Many relics of different colours, a śārira

bright as crystal, and numberless images were recovered (from the ashes), and

worshipped by the disciples.

After the Teacher had manifested the appear?ance of passing into Nirvāṇa, his

mercy (grace) continued to exert itself without break. They erected a precious

stūpa (gdung khang) several stories high, made of silver. The door of the stūpa

(sgo khang) and ornaments inlaid with jewels were, made of pure gold, and were

adorned with countless precious stones, such as ma rgad, ruby, pearls (mu tig),

saphires (nal), and turquoises. The relic holder was placed on the upper storey of

the great st?pa of byams pa gling (%).

(They also prepared) a shrine made of silver and gold, adorned with precious

stones, the length of an arrow (mda' gang pa) in height, a precious life-size

image (of the Teacher), and several other smaller images, made of gold and silver,

also several large and small painted banners (ras bris) of the Teacher, and many

hundred stamped images, having mixed medicated clay with his ashes. The Collection

of his Works was edited.

Later, as desired by him, a large and wonderful silk image of the Venerable

Maitreya was reverent?ly prepared by dpal rdo rje bde ma and her son the

Dharmasvāmin bsod nams ye shes dpal bzang po.

Further, his personal disciples and alms-givers erected several of his images in

gold and silver, and popularized his Collection of Works. All this became the

foundation of the Doctrine, and objects for worship by living beings. Among his

chief, disciples there were many who spread his method of meditation and his

teaching in different localities, but his permanent attendants kept at dol bsam

gtan gling and byams? pa gling his precepts of the "Guide on the Sadaṅga-yoga",

his method of rites (sgrub mchod), as well as his large image, holy objects which

belonged to him, his offering utensils, {R 837} and his books.

The above brief account was given here in conformity with the authorization of the

author of the pre?sent work, mentioned above. In the absence of written sources,

it was impossible to include in the present work the other accounts (about his

Life). We have written the above, because the All-knowing 'gos, author of the

present work, intended to include in this History stories about the Doctrine and

various individuals which could be of benefit to the Doctrine, and because in the

line of the Southern kings, who had worshipped the Three Jewels, dpal bkra shis

dar rgyas legs pa'i rgyal po, who had distinguished himself by the fame of

possessing unequal fortune and wisdom, by his services to all branches of

knowledge, and by the spread of the Way of the Doctrine (bstan byus), like a

stream in summer, when printing this great history of the Doctrine (chos 'byung

chen mo), told us that he had striven towards this virtuous work, keeping in his

Mind the command of the Venerable One only. No one was greater than this lo tsā ba

(bsod nams rgya mtsho) in spreading the fame of our Southern kings and in the

discovery of the Path leading towards the abode of perfection. Therefore, on this

occasion, you should at least insert a brief account of his life. I did so at his


In general, the Kālacakra-Tantra (had been translated) by the lo tsā ba gyi jo,

blo gros snying po, and others, rma dge ba'i blo gros, mang 'or byang chub shes

rab, bsod nams ye shes, 'a zha rgya ?gar brtsegs, tsa mi sangs rgyas grags, ldi ri

chos grags, gnam lo tsa, gnyos lo tsā ba of kha rag, ?bro shes rab grags, stengs

pa lo tsā ba, rang lings lo tsā ba, rwa chos rab, chag chos rje dpal, shong ston

rdo rje rgyal mtshan, yar klungs lo tsā ba grags pa rgyal mtshan, dpan lo tsā ba

blo gros brtan pa, dpan's disciples blo gros, the two, and others. The

Kālacakra?-Tantra was the only book which had so many translators.
{R 838} }

The Kālacakra-uttara-tantra was translated by gnyan lo tsā ba (dharma grags) and

se'u lo tsā ba. Later it was again translated by klubs lo tsi ba blo gros dpal,

who added the missing eleven ślokas. The dbang mdor bstan was translated by ?bro,

rwa, man lungs pa, sgra tshad pa rin ?rgyal, dpang lo tsā ba, and yar klungs lo

tsā ba. pu hrangs lo chung translated the title as dbang nyer bstan. The

Commen?tary by Vajragarbha was translated by cog gru ting ?'dzin bzang po, gnel

cor shes rab grags, khyung po chos brtson, yar klungs lo tsā ba, and dpang blo

gros brtan pa. (40b)

The Commentary on Saṃvara composed by Vajrapāni: I saw its translation by cog gru

ting 'dzin bzang po, which was revised by shong blo brtan, as well as by khu dngos

grub. Regarding the don dam pa'i bsnyen pa I have seen Somanātha's own

transla?tion, as well as a translation by the yar klungs lo tsā ba.
The lta ba'i 'dod pa mdor bstan, which has not formerly been translated into Tibetan, was translated by kun spangs chos grags dpal. The Sekoddeśaṭīkā appears to have been translated by the yar klungs lo tsā ba, sgra tshad pa and dpang.

The book on Kālacakra. The block print was prepared at the Palace of chos rgyal lhun po.(%)