Twenty-one Taras Masterworks
Subjects, Topics & Types:
- Twenty-One Taras Explanation (below)
- Source Texts
- Five Systems Outline
- Tara Iconography
- Confusions: Sherab Chamma
Five System of Twenty-one Taras:
1. Suryagupta Tradition
2. Atisha Tradition
3. Sadhana-samucchaya Tradition
4. Longchen Nyingtig Tradition
5. Chogyur Lingpa Tradition
- Other Systems...
- Twenty-one Taras
- Twenty-One Taras of Suryagupta
- Twenty-One Taras of Atisha
Source Text: 84000: Translating the Words of the Buddha: Namastāraikaviṃśatistotra. Praise to Tārā with Twenty-One Verses of Homage (Namastāraikaviṃśatistotraguṇahitasahita, sgrol ma la phyag ’tshal nyi shu rtsa gcig gis bstod pa phan yon dang bcas pa)
From the tantra known as the 'Twenty-One Praises of Tara' [TBRC W25346] spoken by the Buddha Samantabhadra arises the system of practice with Twenty-one Tara emanations - one for each verse of praise. Each form of Tara has a specific colour and accomplishes a specific activity. Based on that, there are three well known and distinct lineages for the different sets of Twenty-one Taras: Pandita Suryagupta, Lord Atisha, and from the compendium of practices called the the Sadhanasamucchaya. The three lineages do not share the same iconographic forms.
The Suryagupta Tradition is the most iconographically complex. In the Atisha system all the Taras appear in the same basic appearance and only differ in the colour of the body. Green is considered the primary colour of Tara based on other teaching lineages describing Tara in solitary form or with the accompanying deities Marichi and Ekajati. However green is not included in the enumeration of the Twenty-one Taras of Atisha. There are four red Taras, six white, three yellow, four orange, two maroon (red-black) and two black Taras for a total of 21.
The Twenty-one Taras from the tradition of Atisha is one of five Twenty-one Tara Systems current in Tibetan Buddhism. The oldest system is likely that of Suryagupta. The Atisha system depicts all of the Taras with the same single face and two arms, in a sitting posture. The variations in the Atisha system are in colour only. Each of the individual Taras holds a vase in the outstretched right hand. The vase is the same colour as the body colour of that Tara. Some of the Taras are described as being slightly fierce meaning they may have an open mouth with slightly enlarged canine teeth and furrowed brow above the eyes.
The Atisha system of Taras is probably the most commonly found in Tibetan painting. It is interesting to note that there is no Green Tara or a White Tara of Long-life (Chintachakra). These two forms of Tara, Green and White, originate with separate lineages of transmission and different Indian and Tibetan teachers. Also, the Tara known for removing the eight great fears is not associated with any of the five systems of Twenty-one Taras. Tara and the Eight Great Fears is a separate and distinct system. (See the list of colours & functions for the Atisha Twenty-one Taras).
Jeff Watt 6-2007 [updated 5-2017]