Himalayan Art Resources

Mahakala: Panjarnata Art History

Panjarnata Main Page

Subjects, Topics & Types:
- Art History Topics
- Masterworks
- Painting
- Early Paintings
- Mandalas
- Sculpture
- Textiles
- Regions
- Early Period: 11th to 14th century
- Middle Period: 15th to 17th century
- Late Period: 18th to present
- Confusions
- Others...

Videos:
- Panjarnata Mahakala
- Painting #24453

Western scholars, such as Laurence Austine Waddell and Albert Grunwedel, in the 19th and early 20th century believed that the meaning of the name was 'tent' and that this Mahakala was a special protector of the Tibetan and Mongolian nomads who lived in tents. This academically erroneous belief was however supported by Mongolian folk belief where they believed that Panjara Mahakala, originally introduced to Mongolia by Chogyal Pagpa in the 13th century, was indeed special for them based on the Chogyal Pagpa and Kublai Khan relationship. Images of Panjara Mahakala were also used by the Mongolian warriors as a battle standard (flag) during the time of Kublai Khan.

Article: The Popularity & Importance of Panjarnata Mahakala in the Study of Tibetan Art

Database Search: All Images | Painting | Black Ground | Sculpture | Mandalas

Jeff Watt 6-98 [updated 2-2010, 1-2017, 5-2017, 10-2017, 12-2019]

(The images below are only a selection of examples from the links above).