Himalayan Art Resources

Buddhist Deity: Guhyasamaja Religious Context

Guhyasamaja Main Page

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Guhyasamaja (Secret Assembly) is a Buddhist meditational deity that arises from the Guhyasamaja root text Sarva Tathagata Kaya Vag Chitta Rahasya Guhyasamaja Nama Maha Kalpa Raja Tantra (4th-5th century C.E.). There are three principal forms of the deity; Akshobhyavajra (Unshakable Vajra), Manjuvajra (Melodious Speech Vajra) and Lokeshvara (Lord of the World). The Manjuvajra form arises from a separate text, Shri Vajra Hridaya Lamkara Tantra-nama, related to the root tantra. The first two forms, Akshobhya and Manjuvajra, come down primarily through the three lineages of Acharya Abhayakaragupta, Nyen Lotsawa and Marpa Lotsawa. The red Lokeshvara form was popularized by Atisha Dipamkara. View a 3-dimensional paper model of the Guhyasamaja mandala. Some glosses on the Guhyasamaja by Giuseppe Tucci from Melanges Chinois et Bouddhiques, Vol.3. 1934-35, P.339-353.

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Jeff Watt [updated 12-2013, 5-2017, 1-2020]