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Blue Annals: Part 9 (Chapter 2, Niguma)

Shangpa Kagyu Outline | Blue Annals Contents | Blue Annals Outline

Extracted from the Blue Annals (pages ) of Go Lotsawa Zhonnu Pal (1392-1481) using the digitized text of Lukhang, Lhasa

9.2 Niguma (ni gu'i skabs). {Chandra 638; Chengdu 854; Roerich 728}. Having thus related the succession of the Lineage of the upāyamārga of the Six Doctrines (chos drug) bestowed on the Master Marpa by Śri Naropa, I shall now tell the story of the Lineage of the Six Doctrines founded by Niguma, sister of Naropa.

Siddha Kyungpo Naljor
9.2.1 {Siddha khyung po rnal 'byor's biography (Roerich 728)} Its Lineages of Guidance and Initiation: the introducer of the Doctrine (to Tibet) was the siddha khyung po rnal 'byor. He belonged to the khyungpo clan, and was born at snye mo ra mangs% in the Tiger year (stag lo 1086 A.D.) as son of father stag skye and mother bkra shis skyid. Soon after his birth, the Indian siddha Amogha came there, and uttered an auspicious prophecy about him. At the age of ten, he mastered reading, and the Indian and Tibetan alphabets. He became proficient in the Kalacakra. At the age of 13, he studied with the ācārya gyun drub rgyal ba the Bon doctrine, and preached it to others, and about 700 scholars (possessing manuscripts of the text) attended his class. He then studied extensively the Cycle of the rdzogs chen sems sde with the bla ma 'byung gnas seng ge, and then preached it. During that time also he gathered about 700 disciples. After this he made a study of the complete doctrine of {R 729} skor nirupa at stod lungs shomara. Having taken with him a considerable quantity of gold, he journeyed to Nepal, and studied there the work of a translator with the paṇḍita Vasumati. He obtained from him the initiation into the Kriya and Yoga Tantras, as well as about fifty Tantric sadhanas. He was well received by Atulyavajra and met rdo rje gdan pa. He became a novice and heard many doctrines. He then heard many Tantric doctrines from Srī Bhadrasajāna, Vairocana. kha ched dgon pa ba, zhing gi rdo rje, mi mnyam rdo rje, rin chen rdo rje, the three disciples of Maitripa, Debikotti ḍīkima Kanaśri, and the brāhmaṇa Ratnapāla. After his return to Tibet, he was {(2b)} attacked twice by robbers, but was able to defeat them with the help of his miraculous power. In his native place he gave a talisman to his aunt to ensure a male progeny. She bore three sons. A white goddess told bla ma shangs pa a prophecy that these three sons would offer him a thousand measures of barley every year, and would act as his chief supporters. After the former disciples had offered him much property, he secured more than a thousand golden srangs when the goldmine of gu lang was discovered. After that he journeyed again to Nepal and obtained from pham thing pa the Saṃvaramūlatantra and the gdan bzi. After that he proceeded to India, and offered to rdo rje gdan pa a hundred golden srangs. He heard many doctrines at Nālanda from mda chen po, a disciple of Naropa, Sumatikīrti, Rāmapāla, Natekara, the Venerable {R730} rin chen lha mo of Kaṃkata, and from the siddha Sūryagarbha, a disciple of Kukuripa.

He met also Maitrīpa, and obtained from him many Tantras, and offered him seven srangs of gold. Tibetans being poor, he begged him to bestow on him an effective sadhana which would enable him to gather wealth, and Maitrīpa bestowed on him the yid bzin gyi mgon po phyag drug pa . He then took with him 500 gold srangs and asked: Is there any one who had met Vajradhāra? They replied: There is one named Niguma, the sister of Naropa. She has attained the Holy Stage, and transformed her body into that of rainbow, and made herself invisible by ordinary people. However she used to preside over Tantric feasts held by dakinis at the cemetery ground of the So sa island. Those who possess a pure mind might see her there.

He went to the island of Sosa, and prayed Namo Buḍhaya. Then he saw in the sky at the height of seven tālas a ḍākinī of a dark brown complexion, adorned with ornaments made of bones, holding a mendicant staff and a kāpala in her hands, manifesting her various aspects and performing a dance. He recognized that she was Niguma, and saluted her requesting her to bestow on him the holy precepts. But she replied: I am a flesh eating dakini! Again he entreated, and she said: If you {(3a)} want to obtain Mantrayana precepts, gold is needed! He then offered her 500 srangs which she accepted and threw them into the forest. He began to doubt that she was a ḍākinī of the flesh eating class, and while he was thinking so, she gazed skywards, and then numerous ḍākinīs gathered, and she created a maṇḍala, and bestowed on him the initiation of the illusory body and the practice of dreams.

After that the dakini transported him to a distance of about three yojanas, and deposited him on the summit of a mountain of {R731} gold. There in a dream, rdo rje btsun mo bestowed on him the Six Doctrines, and then again personally on three occasions the rdorje tshig rkan and the sgyu ma lam rim. Further, she expounded to him numerous Tantras and sādhanas. Niguma said to him: Except myself and Kambalapada no one else knows the precepts of the Six Doctrines. Till the seventh teacher of the Spiritual Lineage, this teaching should be transmitted down a single line (of teachers). These will be blessed by me, and I shall give them a prophecy. After that he obtained from a secret yogin the bde mchog lha Ina, the mkha' spyod dkar dmar, the rim sna stan thog gcig ma, the Sadanga yoga, and many other texts. He also heard many doctrines from Rolpa'i rdorje, Āryadeva and ḍakisumati, as prophesied by them.

He also met the ḍakini Sukhasiḍhi, a disciple of Sri Virūpa. He presented her some gold and received from her initiation. She said to him: I shall manifest (myself) to your Spiritual Lineage and bless them. She also bestowed hidden precepts on him. Further, he offered gold to the dakinīs Gangadhara and Samantabhadri, and obtained from them precepts. He also, obtained the Yamari Cycle from the paṇḍita bde ba'i rdorje, and the Cycle of the Devi from rolpa'i rdorje. Further, he heard many precepts from the bla ma Advayavajra and others. He then returned to Tibet and proceeded as far as snye mo, and as numerous gold mines had been discovered, he was able to secure much gold. After that he again returned to India and prepared offerings spending 80 gold srangs to Vajrāsana. The Teacher and all people were filled with surprise. At that time, though Niguma, Sukhasiḍi, dor rje gdan pa, the three Tantric brothers and Maitripa were not present, he presented gold to 50 teachers, including Maitripa's wife (jo mo) Gangadhara {R732} and others. They (in return) bestowed on him many hidden precepts.

Again, when he proceeded towards mnga 'ris, he met Dipankara who bestowed on him many doctrines, including the Guhyasamāja and others. Some of his own Indian (Sanskrit) manuscripts being slightly damaged, he restored them after collating them with the manuscripts in Atiśa's possession. They were translated by rin chen bzang po and dharma blo gros. He took up final monastic ordination in the presence of glang ri thang pa. He founded at jog po of 'phang yul the 'chad dkar dgon pa. (The monastery) was visited by Rahulaguptavajra, a yogin of the valley of Kālakuta, who bestowed on him numerous doctrines, including the initiation into the Five Sections of the Tantra class %, the Cycle of Mahākala, and others.

Later he proceeded to tsha lung % of 'jam in the year Wood Female Sheep ('sin mo lug 1055 A.D.). In the year Fire Male Ape (me pho spre'u 1056 A.D.) he went to sag rtsa of phagri In the year Iron Female Ox (Icags mo glan 1061 A.D.) he went to gre in Upper gro mo. Having received an invitation from jog po, he journeyed to shangs. During three years he founded 108 monasteries including zhong zhong and other monasteries. He preached extensively the Doctrine. The monks concentrated too much on the study (of books), and became slothful in their meditations. At times he manifested to them the images of goddesses, at times he showed the fearful forms of the retinue of Yama. In this manner he again introduced them to meditation. Some other monks, feeling envy, called in troops. With the help of phantom troops he caused them to retreat, and they showed devotion, and became his disciples. He used to subdue with the help of his mind concentration gods and demons by day and night who were causing hindrances, such as the thang lha gods, the 'bara nagpo of shab, and other {R733} deities. Having conjured their lives, he bound them by vows. He also performed numerous miracles, such as magic performances and the manifestation of himself in the form of a deity. At the end of his long life he uttered the words: Today it is my last preaching of the Doctrine, and passed away. (Before passing away) he said: If they would place my body without cremating it inside a receptacle of gold and silver, the zhong zhong monastery would equal Vajrāsana. But Khams pa monks did not wish to listen to these words, and cremated his remains, and images of the tantric gods of the five classes were recovered (from the ashes).

Siddha Kyungpo Naljor's Disciples
9.2.2 {Siddha khyun po rnal 'byor's disciples (Roerich 733)}
In all there have been 80,000 monks (his disciples). The chief disciples were: rme'u ston pa, gyorpo rgya mo che, rnul ston rin dbang, la stod dkon mchog mkhar, rmo gcog pa and zhang sgom chos seng. His statement that he had lived for 150 years, recalls that of dampa sans 'rgyas who, when asked on his coming to dingri by the Lord khri pa: How old are you? replied: My age is 99990! Such symbolical utterances made by saintly men should not be considered as lies. Later, many siddhas appeared among his spiritual descendants, and because of this, we should consider him as a true saint, as one would infer the presence of fire from the (presence) of smoke.

Mogchogpa Rinchen Tsondru {rmog cog pa rin chen brtson 'grus (R 733)}. His fourth descendant was rmog cog pa rin chen brtson 'grus. According to his statement: my native place was lha phu span rtsa. He belonged to the zhi she clan, and was born as son of father she rgan sman chung and mother 'be mo padma sgron. At the age of 17, he entered the gates of religion at zhong zhong. The bla ma shangs pa bestowed on him the Hevajra initiation, and said to him: Novice, you should study in your youth! If you begin to meditate early, then demons might carry you away! I shall give you provisions and books. At the monastery of the Dharmasvāmin there was one called 'brom ston who used to speak about his being disappointed with (his) studies, and he once said to him {R734} Novice! It is better for you to meditate! Again he asked his Teacher for instructions, and the Teacher again repeated to him the same advice. After that he heard several precepts from la chins pa, a disciple of the Teacher, and meditated on them, but did not achieve good results. Again he visited his Teacher, who bestowed on him the Cycle of Mahākalā and the nyi khros. g.yor po rgya mo che having come there to make offerings', the Teacher gave him six gold zhos, six silk scarfs and the Sūtrālaṃkāra, and told him that he should follow after rgya mo che. {(4b)}

Then at the age of 21, he followed after g.yor po rgya mo che, who proceeded to stod lungs, and said to him: You should go to skyi shod (lha sa). On the way there he met a kalyāṇamitra carrying with him many books and beating his chest with his hand, and expressing disappointment with his studies, and he felt sad. Having heard about a Khams pa named aseng, a disciple of dpal chen pa, who had studied much and meditated, and possessed precepts, he proceeded towards gnam rdzing kha, where the latter was residing. He met him, while the latter was engaged in bestowing initiations. He begged: Pray initiate me also. dpal chen pa inquired: Whose disciple are you? I am the disciple of shangs pa, replied he. Well, having dismounted from a horse, would you ride a donkey? He again entreated dpal chenpa, and the latter said: It will do! aseng said: There were about sixty scholars including the great kalyāṇamitra phya pa, myan bran pa chos yes, skyi po tshul 'phags, .gyor gnyan, bla ma zhang, khams pa lo tsa ba ston 'bum, and others, who maintained the view that the Ultimate Reality was real by nature. At first I felt some uneasiness in accepting this theory, but now I have faith in it.

During the night of the chief initiation a notion developed in him that his Teacher was a true Buddha. After that he was initiated {R735} into the mandala drawn with powdered stones, and into the corresponding (methods of) meditation, such as the Lu yi pa and the Sahaja; as the sampaṇakrama degree he was given the Sadanga yoga, both the basic text and its commentary, the sbyor phreng, both the basic text and commentary, the snying po gsum, both the basic text and the commentary. He then practiced the breath control meditation in the presence of the Teacher. His teacher being fond of frequently leading a solitary life, (he left the Teacher), and visited bur sgom in the autumn. He offered him some brown sugar, and told him: I am a disciple of shangs pa! And again bur sgom told him the proverb about the horse and the donkey. He then bestowed on him the initiation and the hidden precepts according to the method of ras chung. Once bur sgom's cattle was caṛied away by %shunpas, and bur sgom told him: O rinchen brtson 'grus, you should send {(5a)} hail! He, produced hail, each hailstone having three feet in diameter. Some of the shunpas were killed, and the others sent offerings to his Teacher, and submitted. He cried in the presence of the Teacher, saying he had done a sin, but the Teacher comforted him, saying: You have siṇed for the sake of the Doctrine and your Teacher! This will help you to reach many stages on the Path (sa lam). Should you feel uneasy, I possess precepts which can produce Enlightenment in those who committed the five principal sins, and he bestowed them on him.

He saw the face of the Venerable One and was able to understand dreams as dreams for, as said by Naropa: One with perfect faculties, can understand (his) dreams after one year's {R736} practice. He was pleased (with his results), and the Teacher said to him: Now you should offer me the initiation of the Protector and the nyi khros. He bestowed them on the Teacher. He then obtained from the kalyāṇamitra dkon mkhar of nag mo pa the paṅcacakshubhāvanākrāma degree of meditation, and the rite of consecration, as well as many precepts and initiations from the kalyāṇamitra rdza ra ba. He spent five years with ācārya g.yor po, and obtained from him the Prajnapāramitā and the Catyāmelāpakapradīpa From myang sgom he obtained the Three Classes of Kharag After that he proceeded to his native place, and sold his fields. His father having died, he performed the funeral rite. He then obtained from rgya grags bsod, the Sadaṅga yoga, the rdorje tshig rkang, and other precepts. From the kalyāṇamitra zhu he obtained many precepts. From the ācārya zhang the 'dul ba 'od ldan, etc. From 'bal sgom phyag na the Zhi byed and many other doctrines. He thought of going again to g.yor po, and to visit his Teacher. He told him about his vision of the Yogini (Vajravārahī), and that he was able to recognize his dreams as dreams. The Teacher rebuked him and said: You do not know the Prajapāramita which ought to be known! But you know how to tell lies (which ought not to be known). Don't remain (here) with me! During the same night he called him again, and bestowed on him all the Doctrines, initiations and precepts. He was appointed as his domestic attendant. He bestowed on him hidden doctrines, for five years in the past, and again this time for one year and seven months, and said to him: Being my spiritual descendant, practice constant meditation, saying so, the Teacher passed away.

Having completed the funeral rites during the winter, he spent two years in seclusion at sdings ma, practiced meditation and obtained good results. Since shangs spa {(5b)} was dead, there was no one to ask, and he thought of going to consult Lord sgam popa. On the way he met Śri phagmo grupa. They bestowed precepts on each other. After that he proceeded into the presence of the Precious blama at sgam po, and obtained from him the Six Doctrines. He also obtained a proper understanding of the system of the Great Seal (Mahamudra). When he was about to leave, sgam popa escorted him, and on the way performed many miraculous deeds subduing evil influences. After that he took up residence at rmog cog.

For 12 years he lived on turnip leaves, and practiced meditation only. Because of his fame, many disciples gathered from all quarters. Since monks could not be accoṃodated (in the monastery), he founded lkung lungs. There is no need to tell about the results of those on whom he bestowed precepts directly. Those who had faith in him also gained understanding. He uttered the prophecy that his spiritual lineage would be continued by dbon ston skyer sgangpa, that the latter's lineage would be continued by sansg rgyas snyan ston, the latter's Lineage by one named sangs rgyas stonpa, and that his disciples would spread the Doctrine. He received a messenger with an invitation to visit Sukhavati, but he replied that This time I shall not go, and lived for three years more. Then he said to his disciples: I am going to the Abhirati Paradise (mnon 'dga'). You should address your prayers to that, quarter, and saying so, he passed away.

Siddha Kyergangpa Dharma Sengge {siddha skyer sgangpa dharma seng ge (Reorich 737)}. His fifth successor the siddha skyer sgangpa dharma seng ge, was a spiritual descendant of rin po che rmog cogpa. His native place was stod lungs gnam. He belonged to the 'Bal clan. From the age of 12, he completed the recitation of the mantra of Yamantaka. At the age of 17, he received ordination in the presence of his uncle 'Bal, the All Knowing {R738}, and heard many doctrines. He went in the retinue of his uncle to a religious assembly in Lhasa, and a monk gave him as his share: three (silk) scarves, a tea bowl filled with barley flour and some butter. He took these with him and proceeded to a maṛiage ceremony held on the plain of brag Iba klu phug. On a mountain, he saw a grey hut and inquired: Who is staying there? The people {(6a)} replied: A devotee of Avalokiteśvara, named 'phags pa lces gom was staying there. Faith having been born in him, he offered the provisions, he had brought, to him, and inquired: Did you, Teacher, behold the face of Avalokiteśvara? The devotee replied: I do not know whether it was Avalokiteśvara, or not, but frequently I used to see a grey form on the mountain of grib. Then skyer sgangpa requested: Pray bestow on me the initiation of Avalokiteśvara. At first the Teacher bestowed on him the Rig stad initiation. He used two measures of butter, which he had brought with him, to prepare offering lamps, two measures (of butter) for the festival of cā ru %, and on three occasions lie obtained (from him) the sādhana of Avalokiteśvara. He then asked: After how many years of practice did you see the vision of Avalokiteśvara? The teacher replied: During autumns I used to beg for food. The rest of the time I spent in seclusion, and having thus spent eight years, I saw a vision of Avalokiteśvara suṛounded by his two retinues. After that time, I saw Him constantly. dbon ston then stayed in seclusion at skyer sgang, practiced meditation, and after 3 1/2 years saw the face of Ārya Avalokiteśvara.

He also saw, without any effort on his part, a vision of Yamari, whose mantra he used to recite formerly. After that he was told by his Teacher to proceed to the residence of (his) uncle. He went, and the uncle told him: You have seen the faces of both Avalokiteśvara and Hayagriva. There is no need of listening to me, {739} the khams pa great benefit lies in meditation only. Take it with you, and proceed to la stod (gtsang) where there is one named tsa ris gom pa, a disciple of ras chung pa, and saying so, he gave him one gold zo and six scarves. Having taken them with him, lie journeyed to la stod. On a certain mountain pass a violent hailstorm overtook him while the sun remained shining, and following on this an understanding of the Natural State or Śūnyatā was produced in him.

When he came to Tsa ri sgom po an attendant came out to meet him, and prostrated himself in front of him. Why do you prostrate yourself in front of me? he inquired. By order of the Teacher, who had indicated that to day a saint (siddha) was coming who was to be received. This must be you! and saying so, he {(6b)} led him inside and he met the Teacher. Having prostrated himself before the Teacher, and having offered him a scarf, he requested that as he had not sufficient provisions, he should be given instructions without delay. The Teacher said When you will spend your golden io and the (six) scarfs, I shall finish the exposition of the Doctrine. This was the only lie he told to the Teacher. After two years the Teacher bestowed on him the complete initiation according to the method of Ras thus pa, and its precepts.

After this he attended for five years on one named bla ma spen phug at 'U yug, who possessed the complete precepts of the Tantras of Lord Atiśa, and obtained from him the complete precepts. There he heard of the fame of rmog cog pa, and while sleeping at the foot of the mountain pass, of shangs, he saw a dark man wearing a lion cloth made of cotton, who said to him: Tomoṛow a companion will join you on the pass. I shall act as your servant. Don't deliver me to men indiscriminately, saying so, he disappeared. Next day he went up the pass in the company of several companions. At lkungs lungs % he met the Teacher, who said: Last night a dark man was sent by me. {740} Did he meet you? Yes, he did, he replied, He was the protector (Nātha, Mahāl)! From now on he will act as your attendant. Then he bestowed on him in a gradual way the complete hiḍen precepts, and he obtained excellent results. He met numberless gods and yogins, who had attained realization (siḍhi).

On the occasion the bla ma told him Open the gate of religion to others! He then performed several initiation rites, but his own results grew less. He then stayed in seclusion, meditated with diligence, and again obtained good results. When he thought that it was better for him to practice constant meditation, they told him that he had to occupy the chair of the deceased 'bal tshad ma ba. About 300 horsemen came to invite him. He told them: I practice constant meditation. I shall not go. However, on receiving orders from his Teacher, he proceeded to skyer 'sgan, acted as abbot, and erected a caitya. Desiring to build a wall in the monastery, he collected earth and stones, but others prevented him from doing the work. He said: I have not enough power even to build a wall, though it had {7a} been said that a Religious Protector was to act as my attendant! The very same night several families, who had damaged the (old) wall, died, and the people came to confeṣs He felt grief, and performed the rite of the seven days.

After that, except for a memorial service for 'Bal, he spent his time in retirement, concentrated his mind, and his power of labouring for the welfare of others increased. He received large offerings from the king of 'Ga' and the Emperor of China. When he intended send?ing a large offering to the monastery of his Teacher, the monks said to him: It is improper to send offerings from the monastery of 'Bal, the All Knowing, to another place. They decided that not a single man should go to convey the offerings. Then the Religious Protector assuming the form of a trader from 'Phan yul, conveyed the offerings to (his) Teacher, to a spot from which lkungs lungs could be seen, saying: Now, we should go to the feast of dha na saṃskṛta {741} at the cemetery of mun pa mi bzad pa, saying so he disappeared. Thus with the help of his prescience, he was able, while giving initiations to others etc. to perceive the state of minds of his disciples, and their thoughts. He laboured extensively for the welfare of others and passed away at the age of 73.

Sanggye Nyanton Chokyi Sherab {sangs rgyas gnyan ston choskyi shes rab (Reorich 741)}. The sixth successor sangs rgyas gnyan ston choskyi shes rab: he was born as spiritual son of skyer sgang pa; His native place was Lower yol. He belonged to the gnyan clan; He felt grief for the entire Phenomenal World and an aversion towards material wealth. He thought: I must obtain emancipation in this present body. At the age of 11, he entered the gates of religion at gungbu mkhar in the presence of the ācārya ston yes. At the age of 17, he received the noviciate in the presence of the upādhyāya byang chub sems dpa'. At the age of 20, he received the final monastic ordination in the presence of the upādhyāya bzad pa. He heard from the upādhyāya and mkhan phyar the Vinaya and the Prajnāpāramitā class (sher phyogs). From the ācārya .gye he heard the Pramāṇaviniścaya (tshad ma rnam nyes) and other texts on Logic. In the domain of the Mādhyamaka he heard the Śikṣāsamuccaya (bslab btus) and the Bodhisattvācāryāvatāra (spyod jug). From the bla ma grags pa rayal mtshan he obtained Tantras with precepts, the zhi byed, the phag mo chos drug, the kha rag skor gsum, the naro chos drug and the precepts of so chung ba.

A friend of his named la stod 'khyams po with whom he had studied much at gon bu mkhar said to him: Such is study! The end of knowledge can never be reached! It is similar to a mirage. Now it is necessary (for you) to practice meditation. I have visited dbus, gtsang and khams in search of many teachers, and have especially followed on the Dharmasvāmin 'bri khungpa, {R742} skyer sgang pa, mdo bopa and sa skya pa. But the greatest of them all in meditation was the bla ma named skyer sgang pa of 'tshur phu, a real Buḍha! Go there! I have also stayed there for some time, and my practice of the apparitional body had improved. After hearing the story of skyer sgang pa, he shed tears of faith like blood, and a great reverence was born in him. He expressed a strong desire to meet him without delay.

The spring of the year, in which he had heard the name of the Teacher, had not yet passed, when he met the Teacher. Immediately on meeting, the bla ma said: Last year in the autumn, in a house on the top of a hill, there was a man boiling tea at dusk who prayed fervently to me, with a wide open mouth. Was this you? I have often thought that you will be coming to moṛow or the day after. Why did you delay? He replied: I had some work to do. He then asked the Teacher to give the complete precepts. The Teacher said: In general, this Doctrine of the bla ma shangs pa is very strict, but I shall impart to you the precepts of the single line. Having bestowed on him the initiation and precepts, he equaled his Teacher in the results of his meditation. His {(8a)} Teacher indicated to him the person who would help him to remove hindrances. On one occasion, when he was meditating following the instructions of his Teacher, he met Sukhasiḍhī who told him twice: Keep your mind without object. O Yogin! After that an excellent understanding of Ultimate Reality was born in him. On one occasion the Teacher prophesied to him about his future monastery, its name and his ten special disciples. Then the Teacher attested (this prophecy) with the words: Didn't I give you all the doctrines? And he added: When you will be preaching. the Doctrine to others, put on raṅed garments, and accept food without discriminating. During the exposition of the Doctrine, you should leave out even the cittotpada rite in the begiṇing, and the well wishing ceremony in the end. He also wrote down notes on the Doctrine, with coṛections (by the Teacher). He thought: There is no one greater than I in the possession of precepts ! He then spent thirteen summers and winters at skyer sgang. After that he journeyed to 'bri khung, and met the bla ma gtsang pa. He asked him for precepts, but his handicaps were not removed. He then decided: I shall either attain Enlightenment at sug lung spang kha, or will be dead!

After spending three years in seclusion, a yogin came to him and told him: The bla ma dur khrod nag po has sent me to convey the doctrine to you! He then bestowed on him the 'chi med initiation and stayed with him for seven months. As soon as he gave him: the 'chi med initiation the handicap was removed. The yogin went to lha sa and on his return, he made numerous offerings to the yogin, including gold, silver, silk, etc. The yogin replied: I need no property! I have come to bring the Doctrine to your door, and then departed. He then founded the monastery of ri gong. He visited many paradises of Buḍhas, such as Alakāvatī and others, met ḍākinīs, such as Sukhasiḍhī and others, discussed with them, and met 80 siddhas. When lightning struck his body, no harm resulted. Without his special orders, the Religious Protector used to destroy his enemies. He preached extensively religion to his {(8b)} disciples, and also declared that a meeting with him was enough (to obtain emancipation). He also became the Master of Religion of his time.

Sanggye Tonpa {sangs rgyas ston pa (Reorich 733)}. The seventh successor known as sangs rgyas ston pa, who became the vicar of sangs rgyas gnyan ston: He was born in the year of the Hare (yos lo) in the family of the bon po ya?ngal dkar po at sil ma. As soon as he began to act consciously, he showed devotion towards the Doctrine. At the age of eight, he mastered the alphabet. At the age of ten, he heard the unique tradition of gcod from ma gcig sprul sku at gan bzang. {744} Since his childhood, his mind filled with sadness, he used to perform meritorious deeds by day and by night, such as the circumambulating (of holy objects), etc. At the age, of 13, he was ordained in the presence of the bla ma tsa ri ras pa who told him: You will benefit living beings, and because you will show diligence towards the Doctrine, receive the name of brtson grus seng ge! The Teacher's death prevented him from attending on the Teacher for a considerable length of time.

He then heard many doctrines from the ācārya sregs. At the age of 17 he preached the Doctrine and manifested his ability in it. He then obtained an extensive exposition of the gcod system from sum ston ras pa, and pleased him with offerings. The latter gave him a prophecy: Thanks to you, this rite of gcod will spread widely. He also obtained the Cycle of Hevajra, etc. from the bla ma dbu ma pa. Having heard that bzang yul pa was a siddha, he obtained from him the initiation of Amitayus during seven days, and the Teacher told him: You were to die in the autumn, but by this initiation your life has been prolonged. When the autumn crop will become yellow, you will think that you are fortunate not to die at this time. My blessing and that of Amitayus have prolonged your life. Now till you are thirty do not preach this Doctrine to men! After that, the initiation of Amitayus will benefit living beings. At the age of 19, be sure to take up the final monastic vows! From the bla ma spang po ba he obtained the Cycle of the doctrines of zhan 'tshal pa, etc. At the age of 19, he received the final monastic ordination in the presence of the upādhyāya chos rgyal. He listened to the exposition of the Doctrine at the feet of the bla ma glang phug pa, the ācārya tshogs ston shak, the bla ma khro phu ba, the bla ma sa skya pa, the ācārya gtsang pa, the ācārya jo stan, the ācārya Siddha, mkhar rgyab pa, the ācārya jo rgyal, and khams ston. Then he decided that he should go in search of a siddha teacher and practice meditation.

There was, a great scholar named bla ma {745} rngog ston, who was said to be more learned and more virtuous than sa lo and gro lo He accordingly went to visit him. He spent the night with him. At night there resounded a loud outcry: May the Venerable Tārā relieve him of the dangers of Hell! He inquired What has happened? He (ngog ston) replied: (In my dream) I saw myself about to fall into three deep pits, filled with darkness. I asked: What was it? and the reply came that these pits represented three hells. Frightened, I cried out. Now it. is necessary for me to proceed to a teacher siddha. It is said that at yol phu there is one named ri gong pa who is an expert in the practice of the apparitional body (sgyu lus), and dreams, possesses prescience, and had vision of many tutelary deities. He is said to be a secret yogin, a mahasiḍa. He decided to visit him at any, rate, but was prevented from doing so for three years. During that time the ācārya rngog ston passed away. Then, when he was going to meet the siddha, the latter told his attendant named bla ma kong po ba at dawn Today an ascetic will be coming to see me from rab gron %. He will become the Master of my precepts. (Through him) my precepts will spread from u rgyan and Jalandhara to the shore of the Outer Ocean (in the East).

This morning dakinis and religious protectors went out to receive him. Now you should sweep the chapel, as he is fond of cleanliness. Then, when the attendant had finished sweeping the chapel, and had aṛanged the offerings, the bla ma told him: Now he is taking his food at the marsh of gser gcig ma. Go quickly to receive him! When the bla ma kong po ba reached the beginning of the marsh, he saw him. When they reached yang dgon, the bla ma said: You intended coming to moṛow or the day after, but instead you did not leave for three years! During that time two teachers, the ācārya rngog ston and gzhu pa nag po, who had prophesied our meeting, have passed away! He thought that the Teacher must possess an unimpeded {R746} faculty of prescience. Again the bla ma said: Why did you come here, having faith in me? He replied: I heard you were expert in the practice of the apparitional body (sgyu lus) and dreams, that you had realized the prabhasvara state, that you had visions of many tutelary deities and that you were attended by Religious Protectors. Having heard of this, I have come to see you. Pray bestow on me the precepts of the bla ma shangs pa!

The Teacher then gradually bestowed on him the initiation and precepts, together with their respective methods, and there exist numerous accounts about the excellence of his meditation, and about his labours for the welfare of men and amanuṣyas. In his later life he delivered numerous prophecies. He especially prophesied that there would appear a hundred and eight disciples who would surely go to Paradise. At the age of 72, he showed signs of passing away at ri gong. On his cremation, many relics were recovered (from the ashes), and were kept in a golden caitya and a relic holder (nang rten) which became objects of worship by all living beings. With him the succession of the single Lineage came to an end.

Miscellaneous Connections {miscellaneous connections (R746; Chengdu 873)}. Those who attained emancipation by following after its branches and sections were numerous. It is difficult to establish clearly the dates, months and the age of these teachers. rmog cog pa was a contemporary of dpal phagmo gru pa, skyer sgang pa was a contemporary of Lord 'bri khung pa. sangs rgyas gnyan ston was a contemporary of Lord spyan snga. sangs rgyas ston pa was a contemporary of yang 'dgon pa. On the day which preceded the cremation rite and festival for sangs rgyas ston pa, ston pa himself appeared in the residence of the bla ma A, and prophesied: I myself have performed an auspicious ceremony. To moṛow the crowd will {(10a)} be quiet. This bla ma Aseng was a Tantric who belonged to the clan of gzhu, and was born at ru mtshams lug ra kha. He possessed the Tantras of the Old Mantrayana and a great excellence in practice. He obtained the precepts from sangs 'rgyas ston pa, and mastered the (practice) of the apparitional body and that of the prabhāsvara state.

Kedrub Shangton {mkhas grub sans ston (Reorich 747; Chengdu 874)}
The disciple of sangs rgyas ston pa, known as mkhas grub sangs ston: His native place was khong rkyang yang khang, He was born in the year Wood Male Horse ('sin pho rta 1234 A.D.) as son of dbOn po dkon mchog bzang and mother jo?dge. From childhood he felt great coṃiseration towards the World, and mastered the alphabet at the age of 8 or 9. At the age of 13, he was ordained a novice, nyi thog pa acting as upādhyāya, and tshul shes as ācārya, and received the name of tshul khrims mgon po. He studied the Prajnyaparamita and the Bodhisattvācāryavatara with the ācārya (tshul shes) and the ācārya shakya 'bum. At the age of 18, he made a new exposition of it. The ācārya said to him: An understanding of Pramāṇa is coming to you! Study it by heart ! and handed over to him the basicf text of the viniścaya (rnam' nyes). When the ācārya explained to him the first line (of the text), he already knew the remaining portion of the first page. He became learned in Logic, and became known as a good scholar. Further, he heard (the exposition) of the Five Treatises of Maitreya, the five divisions of the Yoga-carabhumi of Asaṅga, the seven treatises on Logic, the Six Madhyamaka Treatises of Nagarjuna, the Śikṣāsamuccaya as well as many Tantric texts.

From the bla ma sa ston lharin he heard the exposition of many Tantras of the Mantrayana and sadhanas. He heard the bka' gdams pa doctrine from the preceptor of .gya' lung dgon gsar, and from mdo ba karmapa his hiḍen doctrines. His knowledge became excellent. Having no attachment to this world, he sold his entire country estate, and on eleven occasions distributed presents in memory of his parents. As soon as he heard about the fame of sangs rgyas ston pa, he felt reverence for him, {(10b)} proceeded to ri gong, and asked for precepts. The bla ma thought he was a suitable disciple, and bestowed on him the complete Cycle of Niguma. The bla ma was pleased with his results, and praised him, saying: Your progress is better than mine! When the bla ma dkon skyabs of gzhu brag dmar {R 748} came to ri gong, he heard from him the sring thig. After a glance at him, he obtained a clear vision of the first stage of the rainbow vision. After that he practiced meditation at tsa ri and felt a strong temptation. He heard (the exposition) of the Path and Result Doctrine (lam 'bras) from the bla ma khams pa of rgang mo lhas pa. He beṅed that his handicaps might be removed, and his handicaps dis?appeared. After that he took up residence at 'jag and laboured extensively for the welfare of others. He had many disciples possessing yogic insight. At the age of 76 on the I5th day of the fifth month of the year Earth Female Hen (sa mo bya? 309 A.D.) he drew into himself the vision of this life, and hastened after sangs rgyas ston pa.

Jagpa Gyaltsen Bum {'jag pa rgyal mtshan 'bum (Reorich 748; Chengdu 875)} His disciple 'jag pa rgyal mtshan 'bum: he was born in the year Iron Female Hen (lcags mo bya 1261 A.D.) when shangs ston was 28. He died at the age of 74 in the year Wood Male Dog (sin pho khyi 1334 A.D.). He obtained precepts from shangs ston and developed a good mental concentration. He became very famous, and laboured for the welfare of living beings.

His nephew byams pa dpal he was born in the year Iron Male Dog (lcags pho khyi 131o A.D.) which was the fiftieth year of (his) uncle the Dharmasvamin rgyal mtshan 'bum pa. This year follows the death of shangs ston. He possessed a great faculty of concentration according to the method of Nigu(ma). Many great men became his disciples. He laboured for a considerable length of time for the welfare of others, and passed away at the age of 82 in the year Iron Female Sheep (rags mo lug 1391 A.D.). The year of his birth and that of his death coṛespond to those of the Dharmasvamin 'ba' ra ba.

'jag pa's disciple the siddha chos 'byung rin chen : he was born in the year Iron Female Hare (lcags mo yos 135i A.D) as son of father dpon yig gzon nu rin chen and mother bsod names dpal at shong yur, a place blessed by 'bre shes rab 'bar {R749}. In his childhood he had no difficulty in mastering the alphabet, both the cursive and printed scripts. At the age of 12, he was ordained by the upādhyāya rin chen bsam gtan dpal bzang {(11a)} and the ācārya shong ston rab brtan. He studied the Prajnaparamita, and for the first time preached an exposition of it at gnas rnying. He also preached the Doctrine. At the age of 32, he received the finale monastic ordination in the presence of the upādhyāya rin chen rgyal tshan dpal bzang po, the ācārya legs mchog pa and the Secret Preceptor, the bka' bzhi pa rin chen rdo rje. In general, while he was staying at his native place, he had visions of mgon po rgyan chan. An understanding of the Natural State was produced in him. After reading the Life of khyung po, in the same night he became able to realize the dream nature of his dreams without effort. At the age of 38, he sent first a letter to 'jag chen byams pa dpal, and then met him, and obtained the complete precepts.

He obtained from the ācārya dpal bzang pa the Āgamas which were the foundation of the precepts Later, he took up residence at gnas rnying and yol. Most of his time he spent in seclusion. He also possessed a faculty of prescience, and bestowed initiations on many others. At the age of 58, he showed signs of passing into Nirvana on the 14th day of the full Moon of the star bya spos of the year Earth Male Mouse (sa pho byi ba 1408 A.D.). On cremation, numberless relics were recovered (from the ashes). In short, this Holy Man was born in the year of the foundation of rtse thang. Since the birth of mkhas grub shangs ston to the present Fire Male Ape year (me pho spre 1476 A.D.) 243 years have passed.

Ketsun Zhonnu Drub {mkhas btsun gzhoṇu grub (Reorich 749; Chengdu 877)} The disciple of sangs rgyas ston pa, named mkhas btsun gzhoṇu grub: he was born as son of father rgyal po tshe 'phel and mother rgya mo khye 'dren dpal at gchung pa yu ba gdong of Lower myang. At the age of 10, he was ordained in the presence of nam mkha' grags, the maha upādhyaya of snar thang. He studied the Pitakas with chu mig pa and {(11b); R750} others. At the age of 20, he received the final monastic ordination in the presence of the same mahāupādhyāya. When he was about 22, he visited the bla ma 'phags pa of sa skya and heard (from him) many expositions of the Tantras. He also 'heard the exposition of many Tantras from the great kalyāṇamitras, who resided at the monastery (of sa skya). He became learned. While he was training his disciples, the sa skya feud broke out, and he felt afflicted. He attended on eighty three teachers and practiced profound precepts. In particular, having heard the name of sangs rgyas ston pa, he felt a strong faith produced in him. He came to him, and heard the complete precepts of the shangs pa bka' brgyud sect, and many hiḍen doctrines in the possession of the Teacher.

The Teacher was very pleased at his results. He felt a great sadness in this life, but the Teacher on four occasions ordered him to labour for the welfare of others. He engaged in the performance of the gcod rite without caring for his body and life in many localities of dbus and gtsan, and laboured for the welfare, of many devas and demons. After that he founded bsams dins in Lower myang. He taught numerous disciples, chiefly the Mahamudra, and Niguma's systems. His fame spread suḍenly and a large retinue gathered round him. His chief supporter was zalu sku zhangpa. In the end, he gave instructions about his own funeral rite, and died in the first month of the suṃer of the year earth female sheep (sa mo lug 13I9 A.D.). This earth female sheep year is the year of the composition of the commentary on the Prajnāpāramitā by bu ston rin po che.

Serlingpa Tashi Pal {gser glingpa bkra shis dpal (R 750; Chengdu 878)}
mkhas grub chos rje's disciple gser gling pa bkra shis dpal: his native country was yol phu gser gling. He was born in the year Water Male Dragon (chu pho 'brug 1292 A.D.) as son of father named rje btsun and mother dkon mchog rgyan. He learnt the alphabet at the age of 6-7. He received the final monastic ordination in the presence of {R751} nelpa pan chen. He studied with nelpa, uncle and nephew, the Vinaya and the Abhidharmakośa, as well as numerous Pitakas including the Prajnapāramitā and Logic, etc., at gsang phu. He attended on many Holy Men, such as the {(12a)} Dharmasvāmin rang byung rdo rje, the rgya drag chos rje, the puruṣottama bsam gtan dpal, and others. In particular, he listened to numerous instructions in the doctrines of the Mantrayāna imparted by teachers who resided in the vicinity of his native place. He also obtained many precepts of shangs pa from rmog cog pa rin chen blo gros and others. He had many visions of many tutelary deities. In particular, Mahakāla having manifested himself, undertook to assist him in his undertakings. He attained excellent and definite results in his meditation. He obtained the precepts from mkhas btsun gzhon nu grub, the Master of the Doctrine of shangs pa. The Teacher also instructed him in the doctrine of gcod which had originated from sangs rgyas ston pa, and he taught it to his disciples. Masters of congregations of kalyāṇamitras, and important officials became his disciples. He performed countless deeds for the welfare of living beings. He passed away on the i9th day of the first month, of the year Wood Female Serpent (shin mo sbrul 1365, A.D.) at the age of 72.

His disciple bragpo thepa rdo rje dpal: he was born at bzang, and entered the gate of religion. He obtained precepts from many kalyāṇamitras. In particular, he obtained the doctrines of Shangs pa and the Cycle of spyod yul from rin po che gser gling pa. He laboured extensively for the welfare of living beings and was constantly attended by Mahākala.

His disciple chos sgo ba chos dpal ses rab: his native place was gtsang. Having come to thar pa gling, he received ordination in the presence of the mahāupādhaya shes rab 'od zer pa, and then received the final monastic ordination. He obtained numerous instructions from numerous teachers, such as the mahāupādhyāya shes rab rdo rje and others. He {752} obtained the Hermit doctrines, the Mahamudra, and other doctrines from the Dharmasvamin 'ba'ra ba, and a prabhasvara state, undefiled by sleep, was produced in him. He worshipped the two faced (Vajra)varahi, and (his) offering wine acquired a particular taste and flavour. He also recited, the number of mantras prescribed (for the propitiations) of tutelary deities, such as the gsed dmar and other deities. From brag po che ba rdo rje dpal he obtained the doctrine of shangs pa and the gcod rite, and practiced them. Later, while staying in the monastery of thel he initiated and directed numerous disciples. When he came to the vihara of nan rgyal and was revolving the Wheel of Law of these doctrines, one who was well known as rgod phrug ras pa, who had subdued the three Worlds by the power of his wisdom, who used to assemble all the Vajra dakinis by his blessing, and who was an object of worship of men and amanusyas %, obtained (the complete exposition of these doctrines), and personally practiced them. He preached them to his disciples also.

Conclusion {Conclusion to chapter on 9 on Niguma (R752; Chengdu 880)} In this manner I wrote an abridged account of all facts found by me in the Life stories of the descendants of the Lineage of mkhas 'grub khyun po rnal 'byor. They are known to have spread throughout the entire Jambudvipa, and who could collect them? With these words, I complete the story of the maṇer in which the nectar of khyung po rnal 'byor was handed down.

The Chapter on Niguma.