Himalayan Art Resources

Buddhist Deity: Jambhala Main Page

Wealth Deities Main Page

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Subjects, Topics & Types:
- Jambhala Description (below)
- Masterworks
- Iconography: Forms & Types
- Outline Page
- Vasudhara Main Page
- Confusions: Vaishravana, Kubera, Shanglon
- Others...

Jambhala Appearances:
- King Appearance: Yellow Jambhala
- Peaceful Appearance
- Semi-peaceful/wrathful Appearance: Red Jambhala
- Wrathful Appearance: Black Jambhala, White Jambhala

Jambhala Colours:
- White
- Yellow
- Green
- Black
- Multi-coloured

There are a number of different forms and traditions of the wealth deity Jambhala. He is found in five principal colours: yellow, black, white, green and red. The most common are the yellow and black Jambhala forms followed by the red and white forms. Some of these can also have several different appearances with varying numbers of hands and heads. If Jambhala is appearing with a consort it is is almost always the goddess Vasudhara. Aside from those Indian Buddhist forms, there are also Nyingma forms of Jambhala that arise from the 'Revealed Treasure' Tradition. One particular form has the physical appearance of Black Jambhala but in this Nyingma example he is multi-coloured with arms, legs, torso and head all different. Other than the Traba Ngonshe and multi-coloured forms no other Nyingma Jambhala figures are presently listed here.

Jeff Watt 5-2007 [updated 5-2017, 5-2019]