Himalayan Art Resources

Subject: Mountain Gods & Local Deities

Mountain Gods & Local Deities Main Page | Protector Deities Main Page

Subjects, Topics & Types:
- Mountain Gods & Local Deities Definition (below)
- Mountain Gods Outline Page
- Protector Deities Glossary
- Warrior Appearance: Drala Main Page
- Gods (Unidentified)
- Pilgrimage Sites (Mountain)
- 'Tsen' Protectors
- Tibetan Worldly Spirits, Sprites & Ogres
- Masterworks
- Confusions
- Others...

List of Gods & Goddesses:
- Amnye Machen Pomra (Mountain God, Amdo)
- Bamo Sum (Witches)
- Ching Karwa (Mountain God)
- Dorje Dragtsen (Tsen Spirit)
- Dorje Setrab (Tsen Spirit)
- Dorje Shugden (Gyalpo Spirit)
- Dorje Togu
- Dorje Yudronma (Mountain Goddess)
- Drag Lha Gonpo (Mountain God, Minyag)
- Dragpa Gyaltsen (Mountain God, Mustang)
- Dragpa Sengge (Bon Worldly Spirit)
- Dralha (Local Gods of a warrior class)
- Jakyung (Mountain God, Amdo Rebkong)
- Kula Kari (Mountain God, Southern Tibet)
- Machen Pomra (Mountain God, Amdo)
- Nyen Cham Karmo, Yulri (Mountain Goddess, Gyalrong, East Tibet)
- Nyen Chen Tanglha (Mountain God)
- Pehar (Five Kings) (Gyalpo Spirit)
- Sangtsen Nyenpo, Marpori, of Red Mountain (Gyalrong, East Tibet)
- Shingcha Nujin
- Shingkyong Rag-gyal (Mountain God, Chamdo)
- Tsangpa Karpo (Mountain God)
- Tsen Apse (Tsen Spirit)
- Tseringma & Sisters (Mountain Goddess)
- Tsi'u Marpo (Tsen Spirit)
- Werma Nyinya (Mountain God)
- Twelve Goddesses of Tibet (Mountain Goddesses)
- Yarlha Shampo (Mountain God)
- Others....

Mountain Gods and Goddesses of Tibet and the Himalayan regions are spirits indigenous to a specific geographic region and considered worthy of worship by the local populace. The gods can be considered Bon, Buddhist or regional - equally worshiped by all. The more famous of the gods have been incorporated into religious traditions, losing their local flavour, and worshiped throughout Tibet and the Himalayas.

It can be difficult to classify Mountain Gods and Local Deities as to their status as living beings or entities. They are certainly not human and they don't readily fit into the Buddhist description of the Wheel of Life concept coming from the Abhidharma. They are not gods of the Gods Realm, nor are they animals or hell beings. They seem to fit closest to the Ghost Realm, although not exactly hungry ghosts living in a vast empty, dusty, wind swept expanse.

The images below are only a selection of examples. Choose the links above to see all representations of a specific subject. Also note that from the list above some followers of Dorje Shugden maintain that he is a Wisdom Protector Deity and likewise the Gelug Monastery of Dragyab in Kham holds that Dorje Setrab is an enlightened Wisdom Protector.

Jeff Watt 7-2005 [updated 5-2017]