Himalayan Art Resources

Subject: Winged Deities Chronological List

Winged Deities Page

Subjects, Topics & Types:
- Description (below)
- Chronological List
--- Early Deities
--- Middle Deities
--- Late Deities
- Garuda
- Khyung (Eagle)
- Confusions
- Others...

- Winged Deities Chronological List
- Winged Deities Analysis

Early: Pre 8th-11th century
- Vajrakila (Khon Lu'i Sungwa, 8th century)
- Panjara Mahakala (Khon Lu'i Sungwa, 8th century)
- Vajra Garuda Chakrasamvara (Bhikshuni Shri, 10th century)
- Hayagriva with Wings (Jowo Atisha, 982-1054)
- Hayagriva, Padma Ishvara (Nyen Lotsawa Dharma Drag, 11th century)
- *Kakamukha Mahakala (Tsami Lotsawa Mondrub Sherab, 11th century)
- Others...

The Vajra Garuda Chakrasamvara comes down through a very unusual lineage to Bhikshuni Shri along with the white Varahi with a Raised Leg and other obscure forms. The Chakrasamvara deity does not have typical Indian Tantric iconography. The Hayagriva of Atisha has no lineage list other than Avalokiteshvara. The Nyen Lotsawa Hayagriva is said to come from an Indian lineage, but again very unusual in the names of the teachers listed. It is also not known if the two Hayagriva forms were always depicted with wings or that they might have been added into the textual descriptions at a later time post 11th century.

*The Kakamukha Raven Faced, winged, deity should not properly be included in this list because it is a bird, a deified raven with feathers and wings in the entourage of the Chaturbhuja Mahakala Mandala coming down from the lineage of Nagarjuna. However, Kakamukha is sometimes depicted as a central figure in scroll work paintings.
Middle: Bon Deities: Post 11th century & Shenchen Luga, 996-1035
- Lhago Topa
- Magyu Sangchog Tartug
- Purba Drugse Chempa (Khu tsha zla 'od, 1024-?)
- Walchen Gekho
- Tagla Dag Dzog
- Werma Nyinya
- Example Page
- Others...

It is not confirmed at this time if any of the listed figures above belong to any of Shenchen Luga's discovered 'Revealed Treasures.'
Late: Revealed Treasure - Nyingma Tradition: Late 12th century & Nyangral Nyima Ozer
- Heruka, Guhyagarbha & Terma Tradition
- Mahottara Heruka
- Eight Pronouncement Heruka:
-- 1. Yamari (Manjushri Krodha) - body - Manjushrimitra.
-- 2. Hayagriva - speech - Nagarjuna.
-- 3. Samputa - mind - Humkara.
-- 4. Vajramrita - quality - Vimalamitra.
-- 5. Vajrakila - activity - Padmasambhava.
-- 6. Mamo Botong (Matarah) - Dhanasamskrita.
-- 7. Jigten Choto (Lokastotrapuja) - Rambuguhya.
-- 8. Mopa Dranag (Vajramantrabhiru) - Shantigarbha.
- Shri Devi, Uddhata Vajra Paksha (Nyangral 'Terma')
- Others...

Jeff Watt 4-2024
The Winged & the Fanged. Cathy Cantwell and Rob Mayer, University of Oxford. Publisher: Novus Forlag, 2015.

(The images below are only a selection of subjects chosen from the links above).